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inona Lake, Indiana 


WINTER 1972 

Vol. 13 

No. 1 






A publication of Grace Theological Seminary 









i L. Zimmerman 


Luther L. Grubb 


Luther L/ Grubb 


Gary G. Cohen 



GRACE JOURNAL is published three times each year (Winter, Spring, Fall) by Grace Theological Seminary, in co- 
operation with the Grace Seminary Alumni Association. 

EDITORIAL POLICY: The editors of GRACE JOURNAL hold the historic Christian faith, and accept without reservation 
the inerrancy of Scripture and the premillennial view of eschatology. A more complete expression of their theological 
position may be found in the Statement of Faith of Grace Theological Seminary. The editors, however, do not 
necessarily endorse every opinion that may be expressed by individual writers in the JOURNAL. 

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ADDRESS: All subscriptions and review copies of books should be sent to GRACE JOURNAL. Box 397, Winona Lake, 
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Copyright 1972, by Grace Theological Seminary. All rights reserved. 


Published by 







HOMER A. KENT, JR., Editor 

JOHN C. WHITCOMB, JR., Managing Editor 

S. HERBERT BESS, Book Review Editor 

GRACE JOURNAL is indexed by 

FOR MOSHER LIBRARY (Dallas Theological Seminary) 




Charles L. Zimmerman 

Pastor, Evangelical Church 

Archbold, Ohio 

In Genesis 29:31-30:24 the birth of twelve of Jacob's children is 
recorded. These children are the offspring of four different women, 
Leah and Rachel, his wives, and Zilpah and Bilhah, their respective 

It will be remembered that Jacob had bargained with Laban to 
serve him seven years for his daughter Rachel. Upon being deceived 
by Laban at the end of that seven years, Jacob was given Leah, the older 
daughter of the family. Through further bargaining and mutual agree- 
ment, for seven more years of service Jacob was given Rachel, the 
woman he loved, one week later. 

In Genesis 30:25,26 it seems the last seven years of service had 
been completed and the twelve children had been born. This fact will 
be challenged by some of the suggested interpretations. Jacob then says 
to Laban, his father-in-law, "Send me away, that I may go into my own 
place and to my country. Give me my wives and my children for whom 
I have served thee, and let me go: for thou knowest my service where- 
with I have served thee. " 

Now it is not difficult to understand how Jacob could have had 
twelve children in seven years from four different women. No doubt 
a number of the children could have been born contemporaneously. How- 
ever, it is amazing to read that Leah gave birth to seven of the twelve 
children which were born at that time. Of course, there is nothing 

Charles L. Zimmerman holds the B. A. degree from Wheaton College, and 
the B. D. and Th. M. degrees from Grace Theological Seminary. He is 
presently pastor of the Evangelical Church of Archbold, Ohio. 


biologically impossible about having seven children in seven years, but 
the real problem arises when we learn that during that seven year period, 
"Leah saw that she left off bearing, so she took Zilpah her handmaid, 
and gave her to Jacob to wife. And Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, bare Jacob 
a son. And Leah said, 'Fortunate! 1 and she called his name Gad. And 
Zilpah Leah's handmaid bear Jacob a second son. And Leah said, 'Happy 
am I! ' For the daughters will call me happy! and she called his name 
Asher" (Gen. 30:9-13). How could Leah have borne seven children and 
have had a barren period in which her handmaid bore two children, all 
in seven years? Or did these events occupy some period other than 
seven years? 

It may be granted that this is not a problem of great theological 
significance, but nevertheless it dare not be overlooked if the authority 
and integrity of the Word of God is highly valued. In fact, whether 
naturally or supernaturally, it must be answered if the inerrancy of the 
Scripture is not to be sacrificed. 


1. The births took place during two twenty year periods of ser- 
vice that Jacob gave Laban . 

The basis of this interpretation is found in Gen. 31:38, 41. In 
these verses Jacob mentions twenty years of service to Laban two times. 
This interpretation holds that the two sets of twenty years are different 
periods and make a total of forty years in Laban's house. Each men- 
tion of twenty years is introduced with the word zeh , which word, when 
repeated, is used by way of distinction; as when we say, this or that; 
the one or the other. The following passages are cited as confirming 
this translation. "So that the one came not near the other" (Ex. 14:20). 
"This hath more rest than the other" (Eccl. 6:5). The word zeh is 
used twice at a greater distance, "one dieth . . . and another dieth" 
(Job 21:23,25). Clark goes on to explain it as follows: 

So here in Genesis 31:38 Jacob says to Laban, "during 
the one set of twenty years I was with thee . . . ." 
Meaning the time in which he lived, not in Laban's 
house, but in his neighborhood; not as a servant but as 
a friend; after he had served in Laban's house fourteen 
years for his cattle. But then, as to the other twenty, 
he tells Laban at verse 41, "during the other twenty 
years for myself (own benefit) in thy house; I served 
thee fourteen, and six years. " And during the last pe- 
riod though only six years, he charges Laban with 
changing his wages ten times. 1 


It should be observed that this interpretation is proposed, not 
only to answer this problem, but also to solve many related problems 
with the Biblical chronology of the period of the Bible patriarchs, Isaac 
and Jacob. For instance, this longer period of time at Laban's house 
gives relief to a very crowded chronology of events in the life of Jacob. 
With this system of calculation Jacob would have left his home to find 
his wife twenty years earlier, or at approximately fifty-seven years of 
age. This age for Jacob to go looking for a wife harmonizes better with 
the marriage age (40) of both Isaac and Esau than the traditional view 
of seventy- seven. 

Also, if Jacob had no son till he was eighty-five, and he went to 
Egypt at one hundred and thirty, with sixty-six persons, only forty-five 
years are allowed for his family, whereas the larger sum of sixty-five 
years seems necessary for the births of so many children and grand- 
children. This view also has the advantage of assigning such ages to 
Simeon, Levi, Dinah, Benjamin, Judah, Er, and Onan as harmonize with 
the events described in chapters 34 and 35. 

Then there is the problem of harmonizing the dates of the patri- 
archs with the exodus. John Rea has dealt with this matter in his doc- 
toral dissertation, "The Historical Setting of the Exodus and the Con- 
quest. " Calculating from external sources, it would seem that Jacob 
was only a young man of about eighteen years of age when he left home. 
Of course, that age does not tally with the Scriptural indication of his 
age. The Bible tells us that when Jacob was presented in the court of 
Pharaoh, "the days of the years of my sojournings are a hundred and 
thirty years; few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, 
and they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my 
fathers in the days of their sojournings" (Gen. 47:9, RSV). By making 
calculations based on the life of Joseph we learn that there was an in- 
terval of about thirty-three years between the time when Jacob returned 
from Haran and when he went down to sojourn in Egypt. If Jacob was 
one hundred and thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, then he 
must have been ninety-seven when he came back to Canaan. If Jacob 
was with Laban only twenty years, then he was seventy-seven years old 
when he left home. This is an extreme contradiction with the ancient 
history calculation of eighteen years of age. This conflict can be re- 
lieved a bit by making Jacob's stay with Laban forty years instead of 
twenty. He would have gone from home at fifty-seven. It is interest- 
ing to note, however, that Rea is not at all interested in accepting this 
interpretation to help resolve some of the distance between the calcu- 
lation from ancient history and the seeming Scriptural chronology. He 
briefly discards the view in a footnote, saying, "I cannot agree that there 
are two different periods of twenty years each referred to in Genesis 
31:38 and 41, the view of R. Payne Smith." 2 What seems to be the 


reason for so little consideration of a view that seemingly aids in solving 
a number of quite thorny problems? 

The main refutation and weakness of this interpretation lies in the 
grammar of the text. As has been noted, the proponents of this view 
lay great emphasis upon the construction of the two clauses which men- 
tion the twenty years of service. Each clause is introduced with the 
word zeh . They proceed to claim that when zeh is repeated, it is used 
by way of distinction; as when we say this or that; the one or the other; 
and Scripture passages are cited to confirm this translation. 

The writer was impressed by the fact that not one Hebrew scholar 
whom he confronted with the suggested translation for this theory could 
find any justifiable evidence in the text for such a translation. The whole 
scheme breaks down when once it is observed that in each of the passages 
used to confirm their point, when zeh is repeated, it is always connected 
with the waw conjunctive. The waw conjunctive is the device used in the 
language in such cases to convey the idea of distinction. Without the 
waw conjunctive there is nothing to indicate this idea. In Genesis 31:38 
and 41, where the two clauses mentioning the twenty years of service 
are introduced by zeh , there is no waw conjunctive. Therefore, it may 
be reasonably concluded that these two clauses are not arranged to imply 
two different periods of twenty years but rather to emphasize the signi- 
ficance of the one twenty year period in the mind of Laban. The follow- 
ing is an arrangement of the chronology of Jacob's life according to this 




Jacob and Esau born 

Esau marries 2 Hittite wives 

Jacob goes to Ha ran 

Esau marries Ishmael's daughter 

Ishmael dies at 137 years of age 
Fourteen years Jacob marries Leah and Rachel 
}■ service for Reuben born 

his wives Simeon born 

Levi born 

Dan born 

Naphtali born 

Gad born 

Asher born 
Twenty years Reuben, at 13, finds mandrakes 
y service as a Issachar born 
friend Zebulun (82, Dinah) 

Judah marries Shuah at 18 

Er born (88, Onan; 89, Shelah) 

Joseph born of Rachel 


Year Event 

91-97 Six years of service for the cattle 

97 Jacob comes from Haran to Succoth 

(Dinah defiled) 

98 Benjamin born, Rachel dies 

105 Tamar married to Er (106 to Onan) 

108 Joseph (17) sold into Egypt 

109 Shelah at 20 not given to Tamar 

110 Pharez and Zaran born of Tamar 

120 Isaac dies (180) 

121 Joseph (30) made governor of Egypt 
123 Beriah, 20, marries 

125 Heber (127, Malchiel) born to Beriah 

128 Pharez at 18 marries 

129 Hezron (130), Hamul) born to Pharez 

130 Benjamin at 32 has 10 sons, and Jacob 

goes to Egypt 
147 Jacob dies 3 

II. Four of the births took place during the last seven year 
period of service for Jacob's wives and the remaining births occurred 
during the six year period of service for Jacob's flocks. 

Those who hold to this view suggest that if Jacob's first child was 
born in the first year of his second period of service, and if the other 
births followed in the order in which they are enumerated in chapter 30, 
it is impossible that Leah could have borne her six sons and one daughter 
and Rachel could have borne afterwards Joseph by the end of the period, 
so that the new contract could be made at the beginning of the fifteenth 
year. It is, therefore, suggested that some cf the births must be allowed 
to occur in the third period of service. It is felt that the "text has 
nothing against this; for the expression, my service, i.e. (30:26) my 
time of service, need not necessarily be restricted to the seven years 
of 29:18 and 27. It is thus clear that this verse is not from the author 
of 31:41. "4 

This view assumes too much. First, it assumes the impossibility 
of the birth of twelve children in seven years. This conclusion is made 
upon the felt demand that the births followed each other in the order enu- 
merated. There is nothing in the text to forbid the possibility of con- 
temporaneous births on more than one occasion. A more positive proof 
of this possibility will appear later. Secondly, it assumes that the ex- 
pression, "my service, " (30:26) need not be restricted to the seven year 
periods, but may be as well projected to include the following six year 


period. But the text does not read this way. In 30:25 it is not until 
Rachel has borne Joseph, that Jacob asks to be sent away. It is then 
following this (30:27-30) that Laban bargains with Jacob to stay another 
six years. Joseph had to be born before the six year period of Jacob's 
service for Laban's cattle. Thirdly, it assumes that the author of 30:26 
is not the author of 31:41. The critical evidence for this is not final 
and is based upon a superficial reading of the text. This conclusion is 
not valid and is dangerous for the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures. 
The following is an arrangement of the chronology for the dates of the 
births : 

Wife or Handmaid 

Year 5 

Name of Child 

of Jacob 






































The birth of the six sons of 

Leah took pi; 


during the last 

seven year ] 



service for Jacob 

's wives, 



birth of Dinah, 

the daughter 

, was 

sometime after this 


This view, it seems to the writer, is only held in order to re- 
lieve the congested period of seven years in which it would seem that 
Leah had seven children. The grammatical construction, however, would 
not seem to prevent this conclusion. The proponents say, "with regard 
to the birth of Dinah, the expression "afterward" ('hr, 30:21) seems to 
indicate that she was not born during Jacob's second seven years of ser- 
vice, but during the remaining six years of his stay with Laban. "" 

This problem with this view arises when we come to chapter 34. 
Here we read that Jacob had left Padan-aram and was dwelling in peace 
at Shechem. At this time Shechem, the Hivite, the son of the prince, 
took Dinah with him and seduced her. This event had to take place at 
least a year before Joseph was seventeen (37:2). If Dinah was born any 
length of time after Joseph, say the second year of Jacob's six year ser- 
vice for Laban's cattle, this would make Dinah fourteen years old or 


even less when this experience with Shechem occurred. This would seem 
quite unlikely biologically and would cause one to wonder why Jacob did 
not keep a closer eye upon such a young girl. It is felt by the writer 
that there was a wilful cooperation in this act of defilement. The fol- 
lowing is a chronology of the births according to this arrangement. 

Wife or Handmaid 
of Jacob 













sar 7 


Name of Child 



























Is sac ha r 











The Interval of Time 

The seven births took place within the second seven year period 
that Jacob served Laban for his wives. The fallacy of accepting the 
possibility of two twenty year periods of service for Laban was explained 
under interpretation I. Under interpretation II, we showed the danger of 
assuming too much. To say that some of the births took place during 
the six year period of Jacob's service for cattle goes beyond what the 
text says. A simple literal interpretation of the text would lead one to 
conclude that the births all occurred during the second seven year period 
of service. 

The Arrangement of the Period 

Since we have determined the period to be confined to the seven 
years, the arrangement of the births in the seven years must be dealt 
with. Now if all the children, whose births are given in 29:32-30:24, 
had been born one after another during the period mentioned, not only 
would Leah have had seven children in seven years, but there would have 
been a considerable interval also, during which Rachel's maid and her 


own maid gave birth to children. This, of course, would have been im- 
possible and the text does not really demand it. 

When we bear in mind that the imperfect tense with the waw con- 
secutive expresses not only the order of time, but also the order of 
thought as well, it becomes apparent that in the history of the births, 
the intention to arrange them according to the mothers prevails over 
the chronological order. Therefore, it by no means follows that because 
the passage, "when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children" (30:1) 
occurs after Leah is said to have had four sons, that it was not until 
after the birth of Leah's fourth child that Rachel becomes aware of her 

There is nothing on the part of grammar to prevent the arrange- 
ment of events in this way. Leah's first four births follow as rapidly 
as possible one after the other. In the meantime, not necessarily after 
the birth of Leah's fourth child, Rachel, having discovered her own 
barrenness, had given her maid to Jacob; so that possibly both Dan and 
Naphtali were born before Judah. The rapidity and regularity with which 
Leah had borne her first four sons, would make her notice all the more 
quickly the cessation that took place (30:9). Jealousy of Rachel, as well 
as the success of the means which she had adopted, would impel her to 
attempt in the same method to increase the number of her children. 
Moreover, Leah herself may have conceived again before the birth of her 
handmaid's second son and may have given birth to her last two sons and 
her daughter, Dinah, in the fifth, sixth, and seventh years of their mar- 
riage. Contemporaneously with the birth of Dinah, or immediately after- 
wards, Rachel may have given birth to Joseph. The following is a chron- 
ology of Jacob's life according to this view and a chart indicating the ar- 
rangement of the births of the twelve children in seven years. 

Chronology of Jacob's Life 

Year Event 

Jacob and Esau born 

40 Esau marries 2 Hittite wives 

63 Ishmael dies, age 137 

77 Jacob goes to Haran 

84 Jacob marries Leah and Rachel 

84 Reuben born 

85 Simeon born 

86 Levi born 

86 Dan born 

87 Judah born 
87 Naphtali born 


Year Event 

88 Gad born 

89 Asher born 

89 Issachar born 

90 Zebulun born 
90 Dinah born 

96 Joseph born 

97 Jacob returns to Haran 

98 Jacob dwells at Succoth 

99 Jacob comes to Shechem and continues 8yrs. 

101 Judah marries Shuah's daughter 

102 Er born (103, Onan; 104, Shelah) 

106 Shechemites destroyed by Levi and Simeon 

107 Benjamin born, Rachel dies 

108 Joseph sold at 17 

111 Tamar married to Er 

114 Tamar's incest 

115 Pharez and Zaran born to Judah 

120 Isaac dies at 180 

121 Joseph made governor in Egypt 
130 Jacob goes to Egypt 

147 Jacob dies 

Arrangement of Births 

Wife or Handmaid 

2a r^ 


Name of Child 

of Jacob 



















































1. Adam Clarke, Clarke's Commentary (New York: Lane and Scott, 
1850) Vol. I, p. 210. 

2. John Rea, "The Historical Setting of the Exodus and the Conquest," 
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Grace Theological Seminary, 
Winona Lake, Indiana, 1956, p. 82. 

3. Adam Clarke, Clarke's Commentary (New York: Lane and Scott, 
1850) Vol. I, p. 211. 

4. A. Dillmann, Genesis (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1897), p. 245. 

5. Calculation begins from the first year of Jacob's marriage to Leah. 

6. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Pentateuch 
(Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1885), p. 311. 

7. Calculation begins from the first year of Jacob's marriage to Leah. 

8. Leah's barren period is from 4-5 to 4-12. 

9. Calculation begins from the first year of Jacob's marriage to Leah. 
10. Leah's barren period is from 4-3 to 5-7. 



Pastor, Grace Brethren Church 
Orange, California 

The church faces some obstacles. Satan has cleverly thrown 
into the path of the church many hindrances which were not even known 
in the days of Paul. In a real sense what we have discussed in Part 
II are all obstacles to the church. 


There is a science which has just come into its own called Ecol- 
ogy. A few years ago, only those who were interested in semasiology 
knew anything about the word "ecology. " It certainly was not a house- 
hold word. Today it is. Ecology is the branch of biology which treats 
the relations between organisms and their environment. It is the sci- 
ence of environment and the various movements of society or animals 
in response to environment. Some obstacles to the church come under 
the heading of ecology. 

God's ecology was perfect when He created the Garden of Eden 
and placed a man and woman in it and told them to be "fruitful and 
multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the 
fish of the sea and over the fowl of the air and over every living thing 
that mo veth upon the earth" (Genesis 1:28). Everything in nature, in- 
cluding man, was in perfect balance. There was no pollution, smog, 
dirty alleys, open sewers, tobacco smoke, drugs, alcohol or human 

It was man's sin which wrecked the ecological balance of the 
world and has been disturbing it ever since. It is true that man has 

This article and the next are the concluding lectures of the Louis S. 
Bauman Memorial Lectures, delivered at Grace Theological Seminary, 
January 26-29, 1971. Parts One and Two appeared in the Fall, 1971, 



been very fruitful and has multiplied to the point that a burgeoning popu- 
lation may even outrun our food supply in the future. It is man who has 
used the rivers, lakes and oceans of earth for sewers and filled the air 
with industrial nuclei which injure his respiratory system. The irony 
of the whole situation is that man is most threatened himself as he con- 
tinues to make his environment more and more unlivable. He is 
gradually committing suicide. 

Ecologists tell us that in the long run, the most important aspect 
of human ecology is that all environmental factors exert a direct effect 
upon the development of human characteristics in health as well as di- 
sease, which makes the issue a moral one. The life of mankind is at 
stake. It is certain that our relationship to our environment is bound 
up in a larger complex which includes our relationships with men and 
God and this involves the church. Men who see creation as something 
supremely exploitable are not going to be concerned about spiritual val- 
ues but may even try to manipulate God. This materialistic, covetous 
attitude reduces man to a worshipper of nature. Secularism and ma - 
terialism have always been arch foes of the church . They are more 
effective now. By clear Bible teaching, the church must show that God's 
ecology is still perfect and thus desirable. 


The complexities of our living, including mountains of red tape, 
increase day by day. Someone estimated recently that we spend fully 
15% of our time making out forms of some kind or another and com- 
plying with the codes and regulations of our day. The pressures of 
our jobs, driving to and from these jobs on the freeways, keep us in 
a constant state of irritation and often frustration. People are so fa- 
tigued that when the time arrives for church or to perform some Christ- 
ian service, they are so exhausted it's easy to abstain. This situation 
is far more serious than many pastors want to admit. It is hard to 
handle. Scolding spiritually delinquent people when they are exhausted 
is likely to bring a strong adverse reaction. These conditions create 
difficulties in the approach and development of the church. Better me- 
thods and programing can help. The frequency of meetings is impor- 
tant. Efforts should be made to concentrate several church meetings, 
committees, etc. on one night. Over-organization can make a church 
very inefficient. 


Taking a careful look at the holidays and vacations of the year 
shows that the church is almost constantly facing some kind of a holi- 
day weekend or vacation situation. Christmas and New Year come very 


close together and consume the greater part of a week. It isn't long 
until the Easter vacation comes. Then comes Mother's Day and Father's 
Day and school is out and people are gone on vacation during June, July, 
August and parts of September. July 4th is usually accompanied by more 
days of weekend vacation. Then comes Labor Day and back to school. 
But then there's Thanksgiving and back to Christmas again, not to mention 
Washington's birthday, Lincoln's birthday, family reunions, etc. , etc. 

Leisure is a virtual god today. Unions strike for shorter hours 
and higher pay. The pay we may understand, but not the hours. Now 
leisure itself is creating problems, hang-ups and frustrations. Many 
people are like a child with boxes of toys who says, "I don't have any- 
thing to do. " Surveys now tell us that people with 25 to 30 hours per 
week leisure time are bored and unhappy. It had to happen in Califor- 
nia! "Constructive Leisure" is a California consultant firm which charges 
clients $27.50 to tell them how to best use their leisure time. The 
business is thriving. Dr. Jean B. Rosenbaum, President of the New 
Mexico Psycho -Analytic Association, suggests that lonely adults get them- 
selves a teddy bear. It seems we have been so brainwashed by our 
socialistic philosphy that we cannot even think for ourselves. This does 
not make us ripe for the gospel, but for dictatorship. And yet, the 
gospel is the answer. When people are genuinely saved, the Holy Spirit 
provides plenty for them to do in their lesure time. 


It is now estimated that about 2.5 people out of 6 move annually 
somewhere. For this reason many churches are what might be called 
"spiritual processing plants. " Often a soul won to Christ is not in the 
same church long enough to take a two or three months follow-up Bible 
study course. In some churches the flow of incoming church members 
does not even equal those who move away. If the church roll is kept 
active as it should be, the statistics indeed look very poor. These 
trends are destined to increase and not to decrease. Therefore, the 
church must face these facts and do whatever is possible to minimize 
their adverse effect on the local congregation. Many of those who move 
are not followed up and simply disappear from the Christian scene. Any 
pastor is dilatory and untrue to his divine commission in failing to con- 
serve the spiritual life of a former member in a new community by 
suggesting a church there if possible. 


Loyalty to the church is also a waning virtue. Very often even 
those who are considered to be spiritual Christians carelessly absent 
themselves from the meetings of the church. According to a Gallup 


poll, church attendance declined from a high of 49% of the adult popu- 
lation in 1958 to 43% in 1968. The decrease continues. Inevitably, 
this begins with the Wednesday night prayer meeting, then Sunday night, 
then Sunday School and then the morning worship hour. Sunday night 
services are less popular constantly. If you get 50% of the morning 
crowd, you are considered successful. Through the week church func- 
tions and meetings, such as evangelistic meetings or even prophetic 
conferences, seem to receive less support from church members and 
the general public. There is a decreasing sense of spiritual values. 
It is not as important to go to church as it once was. This reflects 
a lack of interest in the study of the Word of God and also in Christian 
fellowship It is true that we have regimented church worship to cer- 
tain regulated times on Sundays and Wednesdays. Historically and ex- 
istentially the weekend has been the pivot of the Christian calendar. A 
Roman official once noted that Christians meet on "an appointed day, " 
the first day of the week commemorating the bodily resurrection of Christ. 
They learned also to account this the 8th day. One of the things that 
distinguished the early church was their ddsire for fellowship. Even 
then the writer of Hebrews had to counsel in 10:24 and 25: "And let 
us consider one another to provoke unto love and good works, not for- 
saking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is, 
but exhorting one another, and so much the more as ye see the day ap- 
proaching. " This is more than a command. It is to be done in view 
of the coming of Christ. The fact is that believers worship God best 
with other believers in the worship services. The practice of the or- 
dinances, which is a group function, is made virtually impossible other- 
wise (I Cor. 11:26). If believers in Jesus Christ are loyal to the Lord, 
then they will be loyal to the church. Otherwise, their attendance will 
be a legalistic thing which will not bring spiritual grace and blessing to 
their lives. 

After saying all of this, we must realize fully that consistent 
church attendance lies at the very heart of the church's program as it 
is today. It makes the difference between the success or failure of the 
local church. If people are not present they cannot be edified. They 
cannot fellowship in collective prayer and planning and sense as a group 
the direction of the Holy Spirit of God. Giving of money will decrease. 
Missionary activity will be affected adversely. Community witnessing 
programs will suffer. In effect, the whole work of God on earth suffers 
when believers are careless about their church attendance. The image 
of the church to the community is a poor one. It demonstrates that 
members of the church do not really have a vital interest in the things 
they profess. Satan has a trump card here. To be successful the 
church must get together, whether in small or large groups. One of 
our critics says, "We tend to think of a 'good Christian' as one who 
attends church Sunday morning and evening and on prayer meeting night" 


(Richards, A New Face For the Church , page 48). If all things are 
normal in the ministry of the church, that will be exactly correct. Gen- 
tlemen, we must teach believers these facts. 


The World Council of Churches and the National Council of 
Churches have immeasurably aided the progress of apostasy. The World 
Council comprises more than 200 church groups which have a consti- 
tuency of close to 325 million people around the world. It has little to 
do with Scripture. Aside from ecumenicity, its main thrust is socio- 
political. Even though it takes themes like "Christ, the Hope of the 
World, " its dealings are foreign to any such theme. It is shot through 
with communism and socialism. In the name of the church today it 
helps black and white militants and subversives. The National Council of 
Churches represents 34 denominations, 41 million church members, 
140,000 churches and 110,000 clergymen. It has overall influence in 
theology, education, sociology and political authority over its member 
churches. Its vast power extends through a bureaucracy of 7,000 peo- 
ple in hundreds of agencies. At this time it is in financial trouble. I 
trust this will get worse as people in its denominations see the true na- 
ture of its anti-Biblical and anti-Christ attitude. These two apostate 
organizations constitute a serious obstacle to the true church in con- 
fusing the thinking of John Public about the church and its function. 


In addition to these and many other obstacles facing the church 
of today and tomorrow, there has been a frightening and amazing revival 
of occultisms The Church of Satan where he is worshipped as God is 
flourishing.' Man, Myth and Magi , a new magazine, proposes to inves- 
tigate 1,000 supernatural subjects such as witchcraft and voodoo in 112 
issues which become an encyclopedia on the supernatural. In Los Angeles 
it is estimated now that there are between 10,000 and 30, 000 witches. 
Some of the most famous are men and the number is increasing rapidly. 
I was horrified to hear the leading witch say on TV that their god is 
little different from ours. They pray, talk about salvation, etc Based 
on ancient Egyptian teachings, the cry is "Reestablish reverence for 
nature. " Satan is a master counterfeiter. 

The church's obstacles are many and effective. 



In light of what we have seen, what are the basically important 
actions for the church to take? 


The local church must constantly beware of apostasy. Unless it 
guards against the incursions of error and does this actively, by the con- 
stant exposition of the Word of God, it will be an easy target for Satan. 
We cannot overemphasize this fact. 

As Paul issued a command to the early Colossian Church, he 
emphasized this strongly: "Beware lest any man spoil you through phi- 
losophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments 
of the world, and not after Christ" (Colossians 2:8). Paul knew there 
were some false teachers in Colosse, and therefore issued a warning 
against hearing and following them. This same warning stands today 
for every local church and pastor. This verse is a command. "Be- 
ware" is present, active, imperative. The church is to take heed, to 
have a care actively, about apostasy. Therefore, this is not a mere 
suggestion. Christians are to watch out for error in doctrine which is 
all around them today. 

"Lest any man, " covers the entire field of those with whom we 
associate. Any member of our family, a minister, a professor, Sunday 
School teacher, a close friend, may be the source of this error. Often 
doctrinal error is found in the most unlikely places. Frequently today 
people who deal largely with truth mix it with error, a circumstance 
which makes it doubly deceptive. False religions are Satanically subtle 
in this. Jesus used a strong word for these people when He spoke to 
the Pharisees. He called them, "vipers" because of the error they 
taught. Such teachers, Paul says "spoil you. " 

"Spoil"" means to plunder, to carry off, or to kidnap. They are 
not taking something necessarily from the individual, although this is 
involved, but basically they are taking the person himself as booty in 



their doctrinal error. After all, what a man believes not only controls 
his destiny, but it also controls his personal life and attitudes here on 
earth. Paul here uses words that might be used of a kidnapper or of a 
rapist. The false teacher preys on his quarry like an animal and car- 
ries him away into error. Such people are usually those who have not 
seen to it that they have been actively grounded in the truth of the Word 
of God. The instruments Satan uses to do this are human philosophy 
and vain deceit. Through the love of wisdom the errorist works. The 
Gnostics in Colosse were very fond of this. Often the methods of apos- 
tates are not in the highest tradition of honesty and sincerity. Much 
work is done "under the table. " They resort to trickery and cheating. 

The "tradition of men" could cover a vast area of error. In 
this case certainly the word "tradition" is used to describe something 
which is wrong and cannot bring good to those who receive it. Just as 
in the days of the Colossian Church, today there are religious traditions 
all over the world which have no base in Scripture. One might ask, 
"Why would the Colossian Christians ever want to turn from what they 
had in the wisdom of Christ to the traditions of men?" The answer 
usually would be found in verse 9. They do not know that "in Him 
[Christ] dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. " Their know- 
ledge of the Person of Jesus Christ is either inadequate or it is in error . 
Does Paul not make clear here that each local church must actively and 
constantly guard itself against the attacks of apostasy? The doctrinal 
guard must always be there through exegesis and exposition. The great 
apostle leaves nothing to chance. People who know what the Bible says 
know that error is always potentially present. They also know that 
Christ is the answer to all error. 


Each local church should review and analyze its evangelistic 
thrust periodically. The English word "evangelize" comes from the 
Latin evangelium . The Greek word itself is a compound of eu, and 
angelos . The first means "well" and the second, "messenger. " So 
the word "evangelize" means to bear a good message. It is so used 
in the New Testament. But this is an extremely broad meaning. Used 
in the Bible sense, the good message which is borne by the evangelist 
is the good news of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. But after this preli- 
minary message is delivered, is this the end of evangelism? We seem 
to know where evangelism starts, but where does it end? Let us re- 
examine our understanding of evangelism and, if necessary, bring this 
ministry into line with the revelation of the Word of God. 

My experience in denominational and independent churches of 
many persuasions is that evangelism is usually understood in the sense 


of bearing the good message of I Corinthians 15:1-4 with the purpose of 
leading souls to a personal experience with Jesus Christ. When this 
has been done we have evangelized. Our statistics are based on the 
number of decisions, first-time and rededication. Going door-to-door 
in a prescribed community and talking to people about Christ is evan- 
gelism. Often we equate total evangelism with the new birth. When a 
soul is saved, this is the net result of evangelism. But the gospel in - 
volves growth spiritually. In Colossians 1:6, Paul shows this. He 
uses auxanomenon which indicates continually increasing growth in Christ- 
ians. It is an inward growth which produces outward results. The doc- 
trine of Christian salvation includes at once all of the great doctrines 
which make it complete, such as those mentioned in Romans 8:29 and 
30: "For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate to be con- 
formed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among 
many brethren. Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also 
called; and whom he called, them he also justified; and 'whom he justi- 
fied, them he also glorified. " Are we not then to conclude that Bibli- 
cal evangelism includes much more than the delivering of the gospel 
and the salvation of the soul? Actually, evangelism has just begun 
when a soul is born-again. The burden of Matthew 28:19 is to "disci- 
ple. " A disciple is a learner for whom there must be a teacher. For 
all practical purposes, discipling the disciples is a part of the total 
program of evangelism. 

As I understand the New Testament, evangelism is a term and 
spiritual process which appears to have three goals: (1) regeneration; 
(2) edification, and (3) dedication. 

1. The first goal of evangelism is to preach the gospel to 

lost souls so that they may place personal faith in Jesus Christ and be 
regenerated. We have no difficulty with this for we assume that this is 
what the word "evangelize" means. 

Personal decisions for Jesus Christ are really not extremely hard 
to come by. Most ardent Bible believers do some work in the area of 
personal evangelism, and some make it an extremely strong ministry. 
The methods available for personal evangelism today, such as "The 
Four Spiritual Laws, " the "Roman Road," "Christians in Action," etc., 
are fine so that even a person who is not well versed in Scripture, 
even a new Christian, may have a strong personal testimony. These 
basic decisions for Christ are certainly necessary for this places the 
individual "in Christ. " 

Where the real difficulties begin is in the area of what we call 
"follow-up, " or discipling. How do we span the gap between the point 
of decision and the church, or between the decision and spiritual growth? 


We read Matthew 10:32 to the newly-born soul, "Whosoever, therefore, 
shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father 
who is in heaven. " Then we tell the newly-won convert that if he really 
means business for Jesus Christ, he will come to the church and make 
this decision public, confessing Christ before men as Savior, thus prov- 
ing his sincerity and honesty. We do our best to tie in the decision 
with a local church. Now we are inferring that evangelism does not 
stop with the confession. The principle is Biblical. One thing is cer- 
tain: unless the new convert follows through on his decision, it will 
mean relatively little to him. He will be like many professing Christ- 
ians today, a religious nomad. At this point true evangelism must con- 
tinue to operate. The good message does not stop but it encourages 
and directs from the Word of God in a progressive spiritual movement. 
Often at this point the church, under pressure to get more decisions in 
a campaign or to increase statistics, will ignore the people who have 
made decisions in homes or elsewhere, but have not come to church. 
Evangelism of these souls stops abruptly. We must not ignore these 
prospects unless they clearly show us that we should mind our own busi- 
ness, thereby proving they were probably not sincere in the first place. 
Every effort should be made to lead these people to follow through for 
the Lord. 

2. I believe that at this point evangelism continues in the 

process of edification and the entire doctrine of salvation begins to ap- 
pear in its true beauty and proper perspective to the newly-born soul . 
The command of Matthew 28:19 is to "disciple." As I said previously, 
a disciple is a learner for whom there must be a teacher. For all 
practical purposes, this is a part of the total program of evangelism. 
In a very real sense edification is evangelism and evangelism is not 
complete without it. This is certainly the second goal of evangelism , 
then, to edify the new Christian. The command for Christian growth 
is specific in II Peter 3:19, "But grow in grace, and in the knowledge 
of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. " "Grow" is present, active, 
imperative, a strong command to keep on growing in the knowledge of 
Christ and His Word. Nothing else is normal or acceptable with God 
in any Christian. The process of growth is clearly set forth by Paul 
in Colossians 1:28 and 29, "whom we preach, warning every man, and 
teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man per- 
fect in Christ Jesus. For this I also labor, striving according to his 
working, which worketh in me mightily." The pastor is the key man in 
Christian growth. Around him and working with him are mature Christ- 
ians whom he has already led sufficiently along the way in the Christian 
experience so that they can assist in follow-up. He is to preach, he 
is to announce with authority the Christ mentioned in verse 27 and all 
the truth about Him. This is what Paul did on his missionary journeys. 
The message involves warning in showing the new Christians what they 


are doing which is wrong and admonishing them to change. This is 
practicing Christianity. The pastor is constantly teaching, putting some- 
thing into the minds of these new Christians about Christ. Certainly 
this has to do with doctrine which issues in Christian practice. And 
the destination of all of this is every man . All of the truth of God is 
for all of the people of God . The pastor and the people together edify 
new Christians and in the process they are continuing evangelism. The 
purpose is to perfect the saints in Christ. This is no blind alley. Ma- 
ture, developed Christians who are able to serve the Lord Jesus is the 
goal. These will be people who are able to apply the Bible to life ' s 
situations. These will be the ones who will start new churches. And 
ultimately, they will be presented perfect in heaven. Reading the epis- 
tles of Paul and his experiences will show that he toiled to the point of 
exhaustion in this ministry and agonized day and night in order that this 
program of edification evangelism might continue. 

3. But the goal of all evangelism is complete dedication to 

Jesus Christ. A believer prepared to move out into the world in faith 
obeying God and assuming Christian responsibility is truly evangelized. 
In Colossians 1:6, again Paul says the gospel "bringeth forth fruit." 
Karpophoreo is periphrastic present, middle indicative. There is con- 
tinuing, built-in energy in the gospel. Its power comes from God. It 
works from within the believer to produce fruit. The gospel fruit was 
shown in Colosse. They not only heard it but fully knew it. The gospel 
which is the tool of evangelism saves, edifies and produces service. In 
Romans 12:1, Paul uses the word "present" which is a first aorist active 
infinitive. Actively the believer has offered himself to Christ with all 
that this means. His life, talents, material means and all of his exis- 
tence are laid on the altar of presentation and complete dedication. Cer- 
tainly this is almost as thrilling to the pastor as the first decision of 
his new convert. From here on, we can see the mature Christian suc- 
cessful in all types of situations. The pastor's counselling from the 
Word of God and encouragement from believers will assist him in find- 
ing God's place for his life. Evangelism is certainly not complete in 
the New Testament sense until it wins the whole life for Jesus Christ . 

This Biblical brand of evangelism will produce strong, virile 
Christians and great missionary churches. It will also keep the church 
in the right relationship to the world it is evangelizing. It will show 
the New Testament image of the church in bold relief. 


Each New Testament church should be starting new churches . 
Through strong persecution, symbolized in the death of Stephen, God 
scattered the early church. As a result, the gospel was carried all 


over the world. New churches were started. Paul commanded Titus 
to ordain elders in every city (Titus 1:5). Paul's missionary journeys 
were designed both to start and edify churches. His epistles are writ- 
ten to new churches. Not all of the potential of the church was con- 
centrated in the home church at Jerusalem, but the home church branched 
out and the new churches did the same as in Antioch (Acts 13). Since 
God has three great spiritual dimensions on earth, the Church, the mes- 
sage and the preacher, it is important that all of these are multiplied 
to properly evangelize the world. 

Three things have always been involved in church extension: the 
preacher, the people and a plan. 

1. The preacher is the key to the establishment, development 

and to the success or failure of the new church. In order to be emi- 
nently successful, he must qualify in several ways. 

a. He must be a Bible teacher, This is the prime requisite. 
Paul sums it all up in Ephesians 3:8. The place of Paul's preaching 
was among the nations. The message was "the unsearchable riches of 
Christ. " This wealth in Christ included every truth in the redemptive 
process. In fact, it included all of the Bible ultimately for Christ is 
its subject. Paul was aware of the unfathomableness of this truth in 
Christ as he used the word "unsearchable. " And it is also exhaustless . 
The idea is "to make all men see" as in verse 9, to bring these things 
to light in the sense that people may comprehend them through the Holy 
Spirit. This is an excellent point for erudite seminary men to remem- 
ber. As Moody often said, "Mother kept the cookies on the lower shelf 
where all of us could reach them. " A university professor, finding one 
of his students using very long words in his papers, said to him. "It 
has been well said that the beauty of the English language lies mostly 
in its short words." "Indubitably," said the student, "Indubitably!" 
Paul wanted to give information which would turn the divine light on in- 
side. Without such a Bible teacher, the new church cannot please God 
and grow spiritually. And if you are thinking about all of those hours of 
tedious preparation, cheer up! I had a couple of psychologists tell me 
the other day that preachers in the current sense are expendable. (This 
made me feel very proud!) We are told that standing before a group 
and telling them what to believe is headed for extinction. They say 
that the plethora of sermons threatens to make congregations "spiritually 
blase. " One clergyman suggested that we might have an extended holiday 
or moratorium on sermons. The conclusion is that there is far too 
much preaching and that anyone 25 years old should be able to find the 
way to God himself. These men forget two important points: God and 
the Bible. Keep digging, digging into the Word, brother, and giving it out, 
and you will have groups to listen until Jesus comes. And keep it simple! 


b. The pastor of a new church must be a pioneer in a practical 
and spiritual way. But God makes him this way. Not all preachers are 
pioneers. This has been proved many times. The New Testament teaches 
this fact in I Corinthians 12:11, "But all of these worketh that one self- 
same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will. " God's Spirit 
delivers to each one the sovereign gift for service. Shall we not then 
expect that He will equip and call certain ones to start new churches 
just as He did with Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:2). 

c. He should also be a man of some experience. How much 
depends upon the talents of the man. No matter how able he is, there is 
no substitute for experience. Previous experience in the pastorate, in 
church organization, preaching and administration will help greatly. The 
wisdom gained through experience will ride the church pioneer over the 
crest of many problems. In fact, experience will keep him from creating 
problems. Some preachers get heart attacks from climbing over gopher 
mounds. They habitually magnify small problems out of all proportion. 

d. He must know how to pray and to discipline himself to do 
it. The promise of John 14:13, "And whatsoever ye shall ask in my 
name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son, " 
should be realistic and practical for him in his personal life as well as 
in the development of the church. Spiritual problems in the lives of 
Christians, the salvation of souls, such mundane things as buying lots, 
constructing and financing a church building and paying the bill are basi- 
cally items for prayer. During World War II when all building materials 
were in short supply and great demand, we continued to build churches 
all over the United States. Our prayers became so specific as to pray 
for 500 bricks, 20 bags of mortar, cement and 20-penny nails. As a 
result, not a single church building program was curtailed when con- 
struction men everywhere were crying for materials. Churches are 
built spiritually and materially through prayer. The pastor is the ex- 
ample and leader in this. 

e. He must know how to exercise intelligent faith. He must 
realize that faith is not designed to test the maximum power of God as 
Jesus proved when He refused to jump from the pinnacle of the temple 
in answer to Satan's reasonings (Matthew 4:5-7). But faith is designed 
to accomplish God's purpose on earth on an intelligent, planned basis 
as He desires. The church pioneer should rejoice in a seemingly im- 
possible challenge. In I Corinthians 12:9, Paul says the Spirit gives 
the gift of wonder-working faith (Amplified NT). This seems to be the 
ability to exercise true Biblical faith in a special way. A man's faith 
is usually the measure of his ministry, not his personality or vocabulary. 
In Romans 12:3 Amplified NT, a portion of the verse verified this, "I 
warn every man among you ... to rate his ability with sober judgment, 


each according to the degree of faith apportioned by God to Him. " 
Some pastors seem to be in a state of doubt about all that they do. And 
this, even though the promises of God are crystal clear. When God 
leads a pastor to start a church, what tangible features does he usually 
see? Himself and a few interested people. The rest is a big blank. 
Nothing else is known for sure. Yet the pastor knows that in order to 
do the job for the glory of God, certain things such as a place to meet , 
lots, a building, etc. are indispensable. Unless he prays in faith, he 
may easily flinch under the demands upon him. The task of church ex- 
tension becomes more difficult. Men of practical Biblical faith are 
needed by the thousands. 

f. He must work hard day and night. He needs a strong phy- 
sique. He probably will be janitor, songleader, Sunday School superin- 
tendent, trustee, deacon, gardener, secretary, church builder, etc. In 
addition, he must find time to prepare sermons. All other things being 
equal, I would say that more Bible -believing preachers fail because they 
are lazy than for any other reason. What is wrong with the little four 
letter, energetic word, "work"? Some seem allergic to it. All through 
the New Testament work is honored by God. The early leaders of the 
church and many since have exhausted themselves for Christ. A new 
church is a crystallization of divine and human energy . Paul's days 
were only 24 hours. So if we work 16 or 18 hours a day for God, we 
have only joy in the privilege. Women who marry preachers should be 
prepared for this eventuality. A clock-punching, eight- hour-a-day preacher 
with an unlisted telephone number is not pleasing to the Lord. God 
blesses a worker ! Remember that success is won by any average man 
when he gets as much as he can out of the abilities and talents he pos- 
sesses. This is especially true of a pastor. He must be an all-around 
man, and this demands maximum use of his talents. Jesus said in 
John 9:4, "I (we) must work the works of him that sent me, while it is 
day; the night cometh when no man can work. " Spirit-led work makes 
the church roll on. 

2. The people in the new church should wear a special spiritual 

brand. Certainly we usually do not have the ideal. But God may desire 
to create the situation through us. Three and one-half years ago the 
church was started in Orange with my own family and one or two other 
possibly interested people, and with absolute direction and assurance 
from the Holy Spirit that this was the will of God. There were no pre- 
vious meetings. This is the hard way to do it. We won people to Christ 
and trained them, and are still doing this. If you can find a group of 
people in the right situation involving some trained leaders, the job will 
be much easier. Since all members of a new church live in spiritual 
intimacy, this is even more important. Do not make the mistake of 
taking as a rule the ideas that members of your denomination in the 


area of your new church would be your best helpers. Perhaps and per- 
haps not. Always remember that God does not ever need human help, 
except where He provides it for His glory. 

a. The members of a new church must be sold out to God. 
If they have not heeded Paul's injunction in Romans 12:1 for full pre- 
sentation to the Lord, they will flinch and faint under pressure. Spir- 
itual qualifications are primary. 

b. They should hold to and practice Bible standards in Christ- 
ian conduct. Almost every member in a new church is a leader. Their 
lives should be above reproach. Paul says, "Abhor that which is evil; 
cleave to that which is good" (Romans 12:9b). 

c. Previous experience in church work may be helpful. No- 
vices may fail and become frustrated under the heavy burdens of pio- 

d. All should recognize the pastor as the leader of the church 
(Hebrews 13:7, 17). It is not within the scope of these lectures to dis- 
cuss critically the pastor's official position in the church in relation to 
congregational church government. Suffice it to say that I believe in 
congregational church government. God expects the pastor to rule in 
spiritual leadership and administration firmly and Biblically as the Holy 
Spirit leads. I have pastored churches in the different size categories 
from little ones to big ones. May I say that never in all of my experi- 
ence have I had more demands made on experience and leadership in all 
areas of church extension than in my recent experience in Orange. I 
can prove without question that little churches statistically demand as 
much leadership and ability as "big" churches. In any church the peo- 
ple should follow the Biblical leadership of the pastor. 

3. The plan for church extension may take different forms. 

No one plan is always used by God to start new churches. 

a. The strategy in church extension begins with discovering 
the leading of the Holy Spirit through prayer and circumstances. Church 
extension is a spiritual process . In Acts 16, Paul tried to get a re- 
servation to go into Bithynia, but the Holy Spirit cancelled it and sent 
him to Macedonia instead. The world is a vast mission field. No one 
denominational group can evangelize the whole world or even America 
all alone. The only certain way to find our particular niche in this 
mission field is through divine revelation. Our experience has proved 
to us that it is never wise to start a new church without much prayer 
and spiritual preparation. Even though external circumstances seem to 
indicate a great potential opportunity, God must be in it. 


b. Methods in starting new churches will vary most frequent- 
ly. A combination of different methods often is used. 

First, happy and blessed is that denomination or fellowship of 
churches which has a fully developed and practical church extension pro- 
gram based on the Word of God and not controlled by a church hierarchy. 
This makes possible the most effective use of collective resources in 
men and money in extending the church. The time is here when it is 
practically impossible to start and develop a new church in an urban 
area on a proper approach basis without special financial help from out- 
side the new church. In our area there are churches which have been 
in storerooms and houses for ten years and are not growing. These 
little groups are like the Rhode Island Red hens we used to have in our 
chicken house. Because no chicks were added, the old hens kept pecking 
at each other until the blood flowed. Introduce some new chicks and 
the problem was solved. In our own fellowship of churches, the Breth- 
ren Home Missions Council meets this need for development and growth. 
Gift money, investment funds, a missionary construction crew, an archi- 
tectural department and all sorts of helps for church organization and 
administration are available to new Brethren churches. Other evangeli- 
cal groups should, as our teeners say, "Get with it!" or church exten- 
sion will decrease to a mere trickle. 

Second, the mother-branch church plan is still one of the most 
effective methods to start new churches. In this plan a well-established 
church gives families from its own membership, money and resources 
in leadership to establish the new church. This branch may be located 
miles from the older church. A church of 500 members will have peo- 
ple traveling as far as 20 miles or more one way to attend. These 
families may provide a fine base for beginning a new church. 

The implementation of this plan is made easy by starting a Bible 
class in the home of an interested family. Or a Sunday School may be 
started in a public building. Or a full schedule of services may be held 
with proper local advertising. In some cases, the older church may 
have an assistant pastor who can work in this new project. Personnel 
from the mother church may assist in the project. 

The administration of such a church ideally for best results should 
be done by a church extension district or national organization. Believe 
me, a local church administering another local church can produce all 
sorts of knotty problems. Sometimes the project dies on the vine at 
this point. If you were to ask me, "What is the best method of starting 
new churches today and for tomorrow?", I would say, "The mother- 
branch church plan. " Start the church using any method on a Biblical 
basis. Don't be inhibited by stereotyped plans. If God is in it the 


blessings will flow. If not, abort it fast and get back into communica- 
tions with headquarters. Maybe you tried to go into Bithynia when you 
should have had a reservation for Macedonia. 

c. Locating a church in a community demands much infor- 
mation and careful planning. In urban areas where most new churches 
are located today, the rate and direction of expansion is important. The 
community should be thoroughly investigated. You may secure from the 
Chamber of Commerce, city and county planning commissions informa- 
tion of city growth, zoning, etc. Check the location and nature of 
churches. Locate in a new, growing area. You will no doubt be forced 
to secure a zoning variance wherever you locate. If possible, secure 
a minimum of three acres of property. Many other important consid- 
erations are involved which cannot be covered here. Remember that 
the next item in degree of importance after the spiritual temperature 
of the church is its location. You learn this by experience. 

d. Planning the church house provides a whole new set of 
challenges. Today there are architects who specialize in evangelical 
church design. Many fine helps are available. Use an experienced 
church architect. This I would highly recommend. A church building 
is a "congregationalistic" thing, like building a house is an "individu- 
alistic" thing. You will save money and produce a functional and es- 
thetic building by using a special church architect. In most cities now 
you must present a completely engineered plan of property development 
with elevations of buildings before even applying for a zone variance. 
You had better not buy the property before you determine that you can 
build a church on it. Get some help from experienced church pioneers. 

e. Money for church extension is not easy to secure. In- 
creasingly, church extension is the most difficult missionary arm of the 
church to promote. There is little glamour for an average Christian 
soul in starting a new church somewhere in a large city. Many Christ- 
ians prefer to do their missionary service vicariously by giving offer- 
ings. Therefore, their offerings will be largely directed in answer to 
a missionary appeal which has the greatest glamour. The appeal of 
starting a new church in an average American city does not tug strongly 
at heart strings unless they are properly tuned spiritually. Foreign 
missions and other special program organizations have much more appeal 
to the human senses. This can be a deception used by the adversary of 
our souls to strike at the base of God's operation on earth, the local 
church. All Bible-based organizations are fine and necessary, but they 
cannot exist without the local church. Many short-sighted pastors and 
churches fail to comprehend this. Church extension men should be 
among the most prayed-for servants of God and church extension or- 
ganizations should be generously supported. 


The Bible provides precedents for giving to church extension. 
God instructed the people through Moses to bring an offering to con- 
struct the first sanctuary on earth, the Tabernacle (Exodus 35:4,5). 
They obeyed and there was more than enough to do the work (Exodus 
35:5-7). This may be the only time such a miracle took place in the 
history of God's dealings with men when their spiritual leader was forced 
to restrain the people from giving. The Lord's people also provided 
for the construction of the Temple under Solomon. Haggai, the prophet , 
commanded the people to build God's house (Haggai 1:8). Even in the 
days when Paul received little or no remuneration for his ministry , 
material gifts were necessary for church extension. Wherever local 
structures were built or occupied or wherever a synagogue may have 
been appropriated as a local church, the medium of exchange was nec- 
essary to implement the work. I enjoy discussing this matter with some 
who say we should take all Christian money and use it for what they 
call "missions" and delete church buildings today. Archaeologists tell 
us that church buildings probably existed in the third century and per- 
haps in the second century. Some tell us today that church buildings 
are not Biblical since the early church did not have them. The evidence 
is to the contrary. What is a church building but a place where God 
meets His children for edification and fellowship? The home of Mary, 
the mother of John Mark, in Jerusalem was probably large. Christians 
met there. Mary and her husband paid for it. Houses cost money. 
Any building costs money. If it has a peak roof or a one -pitch flat 
roof, or if it is contemporary or traditional, what is a church building? 
The weight of evidence is heavily on the side of those who construct 
modest and functional church houses. Squandering money on monuments 
to a religious system is a sin. Cases in point are the Episcopal Cathe- 
dral in Washington, the Vatican, etc. Don't worry, good brother, church 
pioneer, get out there in the field and do the job God wants you to do . 
And do not be confused by the babble of voices about the church today . 
If the time comes before Christ returns when the true church will be 
meeting in the catacombs and caves again, the church structures mod- 
estly and functionally built will have served their purpose. 

Financing church construction costs demands prayerful planning 
and investigation. 

Costs of construction have risen astronomically in the past 20 
years and are still going up„ The National Council of Churches does 
some helpful things in the area of statistics. 

They tell us that giving to Protestant churches increased slightly 
during 1969, but not enough to keep pace with inflation. Total contri- 
butions to its constituent bodies increased 3%, while inflation eroded 
4% of the dollar's value in the same period. Church construction costs 


for an average building have risen from $5.00 to $20.00 per square 
foot. So church extension is caught, as the Germans say, "between a 
rock and a hard place. " 

Costs of unimproved property have increased so that in our area 
or an average American city satisfactory church locations begin at 
$35,000.00 per acre. Adding to this $20.00 per square foot for con- 
struction, plus land improvement, a figure of $200,000.00 is clearly 
spelled out for moving into a new church that will seat 250 people with 
limited Sunday School facilities for perhaps 300. Does this mean that 
we should throw up our hands in frustration? No, it does mean that we 
must carefully apply, adapt and increase our resources to meet the need. 
Congregations should not be placed under such a heavy load of debt that 
they feel overwhelmed. Use the intelligence and good sense God has 
given you. 

In this day every evangelical church should establish its own lend- 
ing agency to minimize inflationary costs and to make possible the con- 
struction of buildings in a reasonable time after starting a new church 
group. Banks, savings and loan associations, bonds, insurance plans, 
certificates, notes, etc. may be used. These demand a high amount of 
collateral security which a new church ordinarily does not have. In our 
Fellowship, the Brethren Investment Foundation, with a rotating fund of 
8 million dollars, is loaning money to new churches at 6-1/2% interest 
to meet this need. Many evangelical groups have not prepared for this. 
It is time for all of us to realize that if we are going to fulfill the man- 
date of Matthew 28:19 and 20 for each generation, we must pay more 
attention to the needs of church extension. We must do this from the 
embryo to the delivery of a lusty baby congregation and then give it the 
sort of preferential treatment every baby needs. 

f. We must present the financial needs of church extension 
to Christian people by every available means. Otherwise, they will do 
nothing about it. We must use all of the media at our disposal. Mag- 
azines, smaller church publications, bulletins, monthly letters, reports, 
missionary moments in each church service, personal appearances of 
missionaries, pictures, etc. must be employed. National and local sta- 
tistics and many daily illustrations provide plenty of ammunition to por- 
tray America's need for the gospel. In the last analysis, the local pas- 
tor is the key to successful church extension. But he needs all possible 
help in integrating this with his local church missionary program. This 
could go on and on. We must conclude. 

In the March 23rd, 1970, issue of U c S. News and World Report , 
an article appeared titled, "Why Churches Are Worried. " It stated that 
deep disquiet is developing among religious leaders nationwide. Members 


of churches are split on social issues. Contributions are dwindling. 
The article was one long funeral dirge for the church- -a great poignant 
moan of despair. 

In the October 19th, 1970, issue of the same magazine, another 
article appeared under the title, "New Life for the 'Old-Time Religion. '" 
Now we read that showing up as a major force in the nation's life are 
the "evangelical" churches. Zeal and piety are still their trademark, 
it is affirmed. Even though the writer, as usual, did not see the dif- 
ference between fully -Bible -oriented churches and others in what is called 
the evangelical spectrum, he did see them as "evangelicals" in compari- 
son to the other great mass of religionists. At least these evangelical 
churches hold to the inspiration of Scripture. 

These two articles are classic in illustrating what we have in 
the church today. The first depicts a church which is in germ Babylon , 
the Great Harlot of Revelation 17:5. It is the beginning of the apostate 
religious system which will come to fruition in the Tribulation Period 
under the Antichrist. It is now a powerless, socialistic, pathetic, sniv- 
eling caricature of what God desires in His church. It is little wonder 
that the members of its denominations are cutting off their giving. They 
get nothing for their money but riots and protests. The second article 
depicts a growing and achieving movement charged with the power of God 
and operating through His grace and Word. All over the world where 
the gospel is still being preached, it is still the power of God unto sal- 
vation to those who believe. 

Let us reflect for a few minutes on what we have seen in these 
four studies. From the Word of God we have seen again the true nature 
of the church. We have taken an analytical look at the present and future 
world we are called to evangelize, together with the obstacles in the way 
of this spiritual process. We have specified some clear Biblical pro- 
cedures to meet these needs. And in all of this we have seen the clear 
fulfillment of prophecy- -the apostasy in the church, the over-riding 
tidal wave of materialism and secularism, the greatly intensified Satanic 
opposition to the church, etc. Isn't it interesting and very significant 
that even though God knew how hard things would get for the church 
near the end of the Age of Grace, yet He specified no different plans 
for her operation than those applied immediately after Pentecost. Could 
we then conclude with academic virtue, as well as spiritual vision, that 
God's plan is still "Preach the Word!"? Since we see the world and 
sections of the visible church lining up against the true church, is it 
an exercise in futility to evangelize men and start new churches? The 
true church has never assumed such an attitude. Instead, it emerges 
from the caves, the catacombs, the jungles or mountains or out of 
any testing situation with a new proclamation of the gospel and anew 


determination to evangelize, stubbornly believing and trusting a sover 
eign God for the results. 

Will this true church fail and fade from the world? This is im- 
possible under any circumstances because the prophetic Scriptures have 
already proclaimed a great future for Christ's church. In His original 
prophecy about the church, Jesus guaranteed its success (Matthew 16:18). 
If Jesus fails, the church will fail. If He continues as the Son of God, 
the church's life and success are guaranteed. The true church in this 
day or during tomorrow, until Jesus raptures the saints, has available 
sufficient grace and resources to meet every need in its divinely ap- 
pointed expansion. If the church of tomorrow reaches God's world, it 
will be by: 

1. Growing in the knowledge of God's truth- -the Bible; 

2. Fellowshipping with the saints at every opportunity; 

3. Worshipping together whenever and wherever possible; 

4. Expressing the truth of redemption in exalting Jesus Christ. 

That's the same old formula Paul used. It works! 

If the church does not reach today's and tomorrow's world, it 
will be the fault of the church, not of her Lord. 

A grand old hymn from the pen of a man of God expresses the 

"O where are kings and empires now of old that went 

and came? 

But, Lord, Thy Church is praying yet, a thousand years 

the same. 

We mark her goodly battlements, and her foundations 


We hear within the solemn voice of her unending song. 

For not like kingdoms of the world Thy holy Church, 

O God; 

Though earthquake shocks are threatening her, and tern - 

pests are abroad; 

Unshaken as eternal hills, immovable she stands, 

A mountain that shall fill the earth, a house not made 

with hands. " -- A. Cleveland Coxe 


A Critical Analysis of the Best Selling Book, 
The Passover Plot by Hugh Schonfield 

Professor of New Testament 
Biblical School of Theology 

The Passover Plot by Hugh Schonfield (1965) had eight printings 
in 1966-67 alone. Today copies of this influential book can be found in 
bookstores throughout America and Europe. We can partially see the 
reason for such a massive circulation when we read the sensational 
cover on the Bantam Book paper edition: "Did Jesus really Die on the 
Cross? The Stormy Bestseller, by Dr. Hugh J. Schonfield, Author of 
Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls. " Further on the inside of the cover 
we read: 

A few centuries ago the Passover Plot would have brought 
the author death at the stake if not worse. ( Baltimore 
News American ) 

Why has this book created so fierce a storm of contro- 
versy? Why has it become a coast-to-coast sensation? 
The answer is not hard to find: 

The Passover Plot asserts --and presents detailed evi- 
dence from the Bible and from the newly discovered 
Dead Sea Scrolls to prove- -that Jesus planned his own 
arrest, crucifixion, and resurrection; that he arranged 
to be drugged on the cross, simulating death so that 
he could later be safely removed and thus bear out the 
Messianic prophecies. 

Never before has so eminent an authority presented so 
challenging a thesis --or backed it up with such irrefut- 
able evidence. Never before has a single book caused 
so many to question deeply the very roots of their be- 
lief .... 



Startling .... The author reveals himself as a more 
careful student of the New Testament than many Christ- 
ians who read it devotionally. (Dr. Daniel A. Poling, 
The Christian Herald ) 

Let the following be noted concerning this book: 

I. First of all, Schonfield must be seen to be attacking the 
very citadel of Biblical Christianity . It is at once apparent that the 
above sayings on the inside cover of the book are sensational claims. 
If indeed Schonfield has proven that Jesus "arranged to be drugged on 
the cross, simulating death so that he could later be safely removed," 
then what Schonfield has actually proven is that the Historic Christian 
Faith is false and that Jesus was really not our sinless Saviour. Christ 
over and over affirmed the absolute necessity of his dying as the Mes- 
siah for men's sins, and he labelled the suggestion of his avoiding ma- 
king this atoning sacrifice as a Satanic suggestion (Matthew 16:21-23). 
Indeed the Old Testament prophets demand a Messiah without any "de- 
ceit in his mouth," who dies , and who rises again (Isaiah 53:8-12). If 
then, while Christ is affirming that he must die, he is at the same 
time plotting on the side not to die, he becomes a deceiver and a sin- 
ner,, And his deception is of the very worst type; a deception which 
would make him by his own admission a false messiah worthy of a blas- 
phemer's death. This is so because he himself pointed out, "Thus it 
is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the 
deadthe third day" (Luke 24:46). If it was necessary that the Messiah 
die and rise again--and it was--then if he offered himself as the Mes- 
siah having only pie tended to die, he was a false Messiah, a deceiver, 
a liar, a blasphemer, and no Messiah by any means. With this we 
apprehend the seriousness of Schonfield's assault on the historic Christ- 
ian Faith. In fact, if Schonfield is correct, look at the stupendous 
hypocrisy in Christ's words in John 15:13 when before the crucifixion 
he said, "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his 
life for his friends. " Thus Schonfield's Christ is Antichrist; and Schon- 
field is aiming his axe at this tap root of Christendom. 

II. Second, we must not allow massive quotation to be equated 
with logical proof . Fortunately, Christ and the Bible here again stand 
solid as a rock through this modern attack on the New Testament, on 
Christ's divinity, and on the atonement. To put it simply, Schonfield 
by no means --scholarly or unscholarly- -makes good any proof of his 
thesis that Christ attempted to come as the Messiah and yet through a 
master plan of deceit he at the same time plotted to pretend to die as the 
prophesied suffering Saviour (Isaiah 53:3-10) while all the while sneaking 
out of the tomb at midnight. 


Many do not realize that true scholarship does not manifest it- 
self merely by the quotation of multiplied men and manuscripts little 
known to the average person. Often I have seen attempts to prove this 
or that by way of the marshalling forth of massive amounts of quotations 
and arguments with the final result still being that the conclusions drawn 
simply were not justified by the facts presented. 

What is the point here to be made in application to the present 
book under discussion? Answer: Schonfield fails to prove his thesis 
despite his great number of allusions to so-called supporting material. 
True, the Bible, the writings of Josephus, and the extra -Biblical Qum- 
ran writings are of great value, but as he used them here, they do not 
prove his point. 

For example, a physicist may write a paper for one reason or 
another to attempt to prove that aerodynamically Santa's sleigh is ca- 
pable of sustained atmospheric flight if empowered by sufficient for- 
ward thrust such as might be supplied by eight reindeer or some other 
type of power plant (and I have heard just such a paper). In this paper, 
by reason of the physicist's training he may allude to various complex 
aerodynamic principles and he may cite sundry thrust, lift, and drag 
equations in addition to long discussions with specific figures on air- 
foil shapes, wind turbulence, laminar flow, ideal angle of attack, tem- 
perature-pressure effects, et cetera. Someone reading such a paper, 
especially a non-engineer impressed with the trappings of the writer's 
obvious training and knowledge of the topic, may be so moved that he 
tends to agree with the conclusions brought forward (for who is he to 
disagree with such an expert?). Yet, still and all, Santa's sleigh re- 
mains an aerodynamic failure! So it is here. The Passover Plot quotes 
Gospels and sources galore, but it does not make good its case. The 
points to follow will review some of the reasons for this. 

III. Third, the writer of The Passover Plot begins with the 
biased assumption, and builds his case upon it, that the Bible accounts 
which tell of the supernatural cannot actually be true . This is called 
"Antisupernaturalism;" and it is the foundation stone of all of today's 
modernistic attacks upon the Bible. Schonfield's book is just another 
of these anti-Bible books, and though a "new entity" to laymen by rea- 
son of its popular distribution, it parrots essentially the same basic 
line of argument brought forth by Paulus, Strauss, and others who com- 
posed the rationalistic (severely antisupernatural) lives of Jesus a cen- 
tury ago. Hear Schonfield confess his bias on page 2 of his Introduction: 

The God-man of Christianity is increasingly incredible, 
yet it is not easy to break with centuries of authorita- 
tive instruction and devout faith, and there remains 


embedded deep in the subconscious a strong sense of 
the supernatural inherited from remote ages. 

On page 6 he adds, 

When the Gospels were composed, legend, special plead- 
ing, the new environment of Christianity after the war 
(of A. D. 66-70), and a changed view of the nature of 
Jesus gave them a flavor of which we have to be fully 
conscious when we enlist their essential aid in the quest 
for the historical Jesus. 

What is he advancing here at the start of his case ? He is telling 
the reader quite openly that to him the "God-man of Christianity is in- 
creasingly incredible" and that the four accounts of Christ which we 
have, the four Gospels, therefore are filled with "legend" to fit a 
"changed view of the nature of Jesus. " That is, the supposed legends 
are placed in the Gospel accounts of the New Testament in order to 
buttress a belief that Jesus was a God-man and that he could perform 
miracles. Thus Schonfield announces at the start of his legal presenta- 
tion that he will reject any and all of the New Testament which tells of 
a supernatural Jesus. With this bias his conclusion is a foregone cer- 
tainty. He who refuses to accept any evidence for a divine Christ can 
only conclude that Christ was not divine! 

Of course, all genuine Christians believe that Schonfield is abso- 
lutely wrong. The claims of the New Testament accounts themselves go 
out of their way to explicitly deny that they are fabricated tales told by 
over-zealous bards. Let the interested reader examine on this such 
passages as the following and see for himself the great and clear claim 
of the New Testament to historic accuracy on what it reports. Let the 
reader see that it claims to have been written by eyewitnesses and that 
the most searching examinations bear this out. See Luke 1:1-4; John 
20:30-31; 2 Peter 1:1-21; I John 1:1-5. The New Testament rings true 
when studied in detail as to its origins. 

Additional examples of Schonfield's denial of Christ's performing 
the supernatural, and of his denial of the reliability of the New Testa- 
ment gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are so legion that it is 
superfluous here to multiply additional quotations to prove this. 

IV. Fourth, the writer of The Passover Plot accepts and re - 
jects evidence in an utterly arbitrary manner . What is the significance 
of his coming into this study of the life of Christ with his opinion that 
"The God-man of Christianity is increasingly incredible" (p. 2)? Does 
not everyone enter every investigation with one bias or another? Answer: 


Here in this case Schonfield's bias is fatal. Why? Because the primary 
documentation out of which he constructs his case is the New Testament 
Gospel account which he confessedly regards as largely fabrication. He 
attempts to assert that Christ was thus and so while affirming that the 
only evidence which tells of Christ is entirely untrustworthy. At best 
his conclusion should be an agnostic one; yet he speculates of a plotting 

But doesn't he also utilize Josephus and the Dead Sea Scrolls? 
Answer: Not really. The Josephean and Qumran material would be to- 
day a sine qua non in the reconstruction of a full history of the first 
century B. C. or the first century A. D. ; but in any reconstruction of 
the Life of Christ everyone familiar with the subject knows that they 
provide only historic atmosphere. Both of these sources often quoted 
by Schonfield contain no references to Christ whatsoever except for pos- 
sibly one or two much debated sentences . 

Here then is the point. If the only written documentation from 
the time of Christ about Christ's life is contained in the New Testament 
documents (and this is so, except for a few innocuous sentences in extra- 
Biblical literature): and if Schonfield openly despises them as filled and 
mixed hopelessly with legend; then how can he on the basis of these 
error-filled accounts so sift truth from non-truth to prove his thesis 
which involves an entire new detailed reconstruction of the life of Christ? 
Answer: He cannot do it. 

His entire case is not in fact a proof . What he does is to offer 
his theory which involves a Jesus who condemns the Pharisees for hypoc- 
risy, and at the same time plays the part of the world's greatest hypo- 
crite—pretending to die willingly as the sinless messianic redeemer, 
while at the same time maneuvering by deceptions and lies to sneak 
away alive. He, Schonfield, to make his plot thesis work must arbi- 
trarily say: "Jesus did not do this--he did not say that--the gospel 
writers made it up; but here Jesus must have done this and that . . . . " 
The fallacy of it all is that he himself becomes the judge and arbiter 
of all of the evidence, and he keeps whatever New Testament word or 
deed which fits his theory and he arbitrarily dismisses as untrue all 
that would disprove his thesis . Whenever something is mentioned in 
the Gospels showing Jesus' supernatural powers, his deity, or his abso- 
lute integrity Schonfield pushes it aside because he utterly rejects such 
concepts as being even possibly true (so on pp. 109-10 he peremptorily 
rejects the John 11 account of the raising of Lazarus from the grave). 
Naturally with such a rigged judge who accepts only the factors which 
would permit his theory- -just as a polarized sunglass accepts only light 
rays oriented in one plane- -he makes his theory sound almost plausible. 
Yet it is all of his own imagination. 


His test for reliable evidence becomes the question as to whether 
or not it fits his theories about Christ's true nature and motives. He, 
along with all modernists, arbitrarily carves out his own Jesus by pick- 
ing and choosing what he wants to retain from the Gospel accounts. Then 
he offers it to us as his conception of the real Jesus. But let us see it 
for what it is- -not scholarship but imaginative art, idol making. Let us 
have done with pious reviews of Schonfield's book which act surprised that 
one who begins by viewing the Jesus of the Gospels as "incredible" should 
conclude that he cannot believe in a Christ who rose from the dead. 

V. Fifth, Schonfield's constant assertion of errors and con- 

flicts in the Gospel accounts are not the proven results of s cholarship 
but rather his continual opinionated attacks based upon biases and s uper - 
ficialities . 

For example, his assertion (p. 264) that Christ did not still the 
storm as the Gospel of Matthew 8:24-27 reports is based on his assump- 
tion that Jesus was not a God-man; therefore he could not have stilled 
the storm; therefore He did not do it; therefore it was a coincidental 
happening into which the disciples misread the power of God. 

He asserts (p. 209) that the parable of Luke 16 on the Rich Man 
and Lazarus and the account of the raising of Lazarus given in John 11 
both come from the same legend based upon a sick man making a sur- 
prising recovery. Yet this suggestion is utterly without proof whatso- 
ever beyond the superficial observation of the same name used in two 
different places. These two Lazaruses were different men. The one 
of Luke 16:19-31 was a poor beggar who had no caretakers and who was 
starving; the Lazarus of John 11 was the brother of two sisters with 
whom he lived in Bethany who were sufficiently well to do so as to en- 
tertain Jesus together with his disciples on more than one occasion 
(Luke 10:40; John 12:2). Where is the evidence to relate these two 
items? Where is the evidence to deny that Christ raised Lazarus from 
the dead as this scene is meticulously reported in lengthy detail in John 
11? Answer: None. These narratives are purely Biblical events; there 
is no historical data outside the Bible to refute them; and there is no 
internal evidence from the Biblical narratives themselves to suggest that 
the two are related, that the two are legends from a common cistern, 
or that the two are untrue- -except it be the conviction of unbelief that 
even God cannot raise the dead. 

Schonfield's treatment of Christ's walking on the water (p. 265) 
is another example of his type of attack on the trustworthiness of the 
Gospels (Matthew 14:22-33; Mark 6:45-52). He first brings out the fact 
that Mark tells us only of Christ walking upon the water while he savs 
that Matthew "elaborated" to include Peter's attempt to follow Christ in 


doing this. This is true; but there is the implication that either Matthew 
added or that Mark subtracted from the story (though Schonfield credits 
neither Christ nor Peter with such a miraculous feat). Here we must 
note an axiom of Gospel interpretation. The omission of a fact in one 
Gospel in no way denies the actuality of this fact when it is reported 
in another Gospel. In other words, no one writer includes everything; 
and Mark's omission of Peter's attempt to follow Jesus upon the water 
in no way denies Matthew's assertion of it. Compare: "Mark says that 
he saw Mother coming from the store yesterday with "Matthew says 
that he saw Mother and Peter coming from the store yesterday. " Here 
both are true, but one adds a detail that the other omits. Neither errs. 

Further on this same incident, the English doctor (p. 265) ascribes 
the entire account of Christ walking on the water to a later confusion with 
regard to the Hebrew word al. He advances the idea that it was first said 
Jesus walked al ("by") the water; but later this was taken to mean that Jesus 
walked al ("on") the water. But here, despite the impressive allusion to 
the Hebrew, there is absolutely no evidence for such a case. Matthew 
and Mark are both written in Greek and in both Matthew 14:25 and Mark 
6:48 the word is clearly "upon" (epi) and not "beside" or "by" (para). 
Even if Matthew had composed an earlier Logia (collection of Christ's 
sayings) there is no evidence that this narrative portion would be in it; 
quite the contrary, the Hebrew Logia is usually thought to contain the 
Non-Markian discourse material. Evidence for the confusion of Hebrew 
words? None. 

Do you see? Such assertions are founded not on any solid evi- 
dence-proof basis, but upon the presupposition that because men today 
cannot normally walk upon water therefore even a messianic Son of God 
could not do it. This is so despite the fact that the only accounts which 
we have on the subject assert in detail and at length that He did do it. 
Matthew who reported this incident of the walking upon the water (Matthew 
14:22-23) was one of the twelve apostles who travelled with Jesus. He 
was in the boat when this incident happened. Mark, the other reporter 
of the event (Mark 6:45-52'), was the interpreter and travelling; compan- 
ion of the Apostle Peter (so Papias, early second century), and Mark's 
account would thus record Peter's testimony. On such things Peter well 
said in 2 Peter 1:16, 

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when 
we made known unto you the power and coming of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his 

That is, 

For we (the apostles and Gospel writers) have not fol- 
lowed cunningly devised fables ( muthois in the Greek-- 


"myths"), when we made known unto you the power and 
coming of our Lord Jesus Christ (i.e., "when we tes- 
tified to you of the miracles, signs, deeds, and gra- 
cious words of the Messiah Jesus who has appeared"), 
- but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty (i. e. , we did 
not make up these accounts, but we personally saw 
first-hand these things happen). 

Peter tells us that he was there when these things happened and 
that these events r ecorded in the Gospels are true. Matthew was there 
and he too declares that Christ walked out upon the waters of Galilee's 
Lake manifesting his miraculous powers as the true Son of God. Schon- 
field says that it was an embellished story based probably on Jesus "wad- 
ing into the shallows" (p. 265). Where is his evidence for this? No- 
where. He simply rejects the account and all like accounts not on the 
basis of new scholarly manuscript finds or any such evidence, but rather 
simply because he cannot believe that such things could occur. He thus 
on the basis of his bias dismisses the only available evidence which we 
have on the incident, which evidence points only to Jesus actually having 
walked on the water. 

The internal evidence of the cohesiveness of the Biblical account, 
its rationality, and its internal self-consistency makes it highly credible. 
Put this with the prophecies telling of the miraculous signs to be per- 
formed in the Messianic Kingdom (e.g., Isaiah 35:5-6) and with the 
unique to all of world literature and biography Gospel accounts of Jesus' 
perfect life and words, and the probability no longer leans against this 
man Jesus doing a miracle; it leans in favor of it. Again and again we 
must declare that Christ himself (the Living Word of God) and the Gospel 
narratives of Christ's life (the written Word of God) are self-authenti - 
cating . 

Schonfield's explaining away of the miracles with often the iden - 
tical explanations given by the European School of rationalistic theo- 
logians of the former century (and they too advocated their "plot the- 
ories") is not proof against their reality; it is merely his own personal 
manifesto of unbelief in Jesus as the Christ. And what unbeliever does 
credit Jesus with doing miracles? 

Now we do not deny him his liberty to reject Jesus as the Mes- 
siah-Christ; even God in this present age grants him this. But we do 
say that all believing Christians disagree with his conclusions, regard 
his unbelief as sin, and reject any proposition by sympathetic book re- 
viewers that he has made good his case. 


VI. Sixth, and finally, Schonfield's theory of a Passover Plot 
simply is not justified by the evidence. The plot theory itself can be 
put in synopsis form by the following quotes from the book itself: 

On the hill of Golgotha three bodies are suspended on 
crosses. Two--the thieves--are dead. The third ap- 
pears so. This is the drugged body of Jesus of Naza- 
reth, the man who planned his own crucifixion, who 
contrived to be given a soporific potion to put him in- 
to a deathlike trance. Now Joseph of Arimathea, bear- 
ing clean linen and spices, approaches and recovers 
the still form of Jesus. All seems to be proceeding 
according to plan ... (p. i--of the Introductory pages). 

. . . Moves and situations had to be anticipated, rulers 
and associates had to perform their functions without 
realizing that they were being used. A conspiracy had 
to be organized of which the victim was himself the 
deliberate secret instigator. It was a nightmarish con- 
ception and undertaking, the outcome of the frightening 
logic of a sick mind, or of a genius. And it worked 
out (p. 125). 

Thus the theory runs through chapters 9-13 of Schonfield's book. 
The claim is that the people were looking for a messiah, Jesus knew the 
prophecies concerning the messiah's suffering. Jesus decided that he 
would be that messiah and that he would so plot and manipulate circum- 
stances and people that in the end after crucifixion he could sneak away 
from the tomb alive- -thus permitting a belief in his resurrection to be 
kindled and spread abroad. 

This theory is entirely imaginary and entirely against all of the 
available evidence. One could just as well advance countless similar 
theories which would be just as credible- -only they, too, would have 
two fatal faults, viz. , (1) They are built entirely on imagination; and 
(2) the available evidence points the other way. 

To understand this, note the following example: It could be the- 
orized that Lincoln did not die either, but that he was the brains behind 
the Theater Plot . It could be shown that he had great motives to desire 
to appear to be shot- -he wished to go into the halls of American fame 
which assassination would insure. Also, he was wearied of the long 
trials of the war and he thought that another who had not gained so many 
personal enemies as himself could lead the nation more effectively in 
the reconstruction period. Yet he knew that he was so popular with 
the masses that he would easily be drafted as the Presidential candidate 


and the Northern votes would make his election certain. What to do? 
Answer: He had an actor hired who could carry off his part well. It 
was only a blank fired, and a catsup bag provided the blood. Only a 
few would be allowed near him and the secret would be safe with just 
a handful of plotters. When his death was announced the empty coffin 
was sealed and at night the newly shaven and beardless ex-president rode 
off to the west into oblivion. Later his fellow plotters cleverly re- 
leased stories of how the dead body was seen by many. Booth, the assas- 
sin, had his lips permanently sealed by death as had been, of course, 
planned in advance by the plotters. 

Who can deny that the above is not what really happend? Answer: 
No one. However, the evidence simply does not point this way in a 
credible fashion; and none see it so except those who desire to do so. 
In the same say, Schonfield's plot invents people doing secretive deeds 
at the right times without the least bit of evidence. 

On page 127 he says that the one who prepared the donkey for 
Christ's Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem at the start of the Passion Week 
was Lazarus, i.e., ". . . Jesus had privately arranged, no doubt with 
Lazarus . . . ." The naming of this person as "Lazarus" and the 
startling and superbly unscholarly assuring words, "no doubt," is pure 
imagination. There is no New Testament indication or extra-Biblical 
record anywhere that shows that Lazarus did this. Oh yes, Matthew 
21:2-3 shows that Christ did indeed previously take care of this, but 
the assertion that it was "Lazarus ... no doubt" is a typical example 
of dogmatic asset ions being continually made without evidence to fit the 

On page 127 Schonfield creates an unnamed disciple called 'John 
the Priest" to provide an additional plotter. There is no evidence for 
even so much as the existence of such a person in the New Testament, 
let alone to assign him the role as a plotter. Someone, however, may 
reply to me with the question, "But can you prove that such a person 
did not exist? Or perhaps he existed under the title of "John the Pro- 
phet" or maybe, "Jim the Priest?" Answer: No, I cannot prove that 
there was no one such as John the Priest, living at Christ's time, neither 
can I assert that there is no three-eyed frog somewhere in Jamaica- - 
it is difficult and sometimes impossible to assert a categorical negative. 
The point is, however, that Schonfield has no true proof for asserting 
that such a one ever lived except it be that the plot theory needs him. 

On pages 127-28 Schonfield asserts that "we are able to detect 
a private arrangement by Jesus with Mary. . . " made in order that 
Mary would anoint Christ in advance for his death and so force the hand 
of the emotional Judas into the now -needed betrayal. If this were so 


Jesus becomes the arch-moral-hypocrite of the ages, because he forces 
a weak man, Judas, to betray him, which betrayal is consummated in 
Judas' hanging of himself. Then, you see, Jesus murdered Judas by 
manipulating him to perform a deed which resulted in Judas' committing 
suicide. Then it is Christ and not Judas who is the betrayer of friend- 
ship and the murderer! 

Fortunately, here again, there is utterly no proof anywhere to 
show a Jesus-Mary plot to force Judas' hand. This is utterly imagin- 
ation and it would be summarily rejected by every court in this land. 
No evidence- -only guesses unsupported by facts—this is the continual 
flaw which mars the entire case of The Passover Plot . 

Schonfield's imagination also placed a fourteenth chair at the Last 
Supper. Christ plus the twelve make thirteen, and Schonfield adds num- 
ber fourteen (p. 132) in his assertion that another, an arch-plotter called 
"The Beloved Disciple, " was also present. Proof? None. Here only 
Schonfield's rejection of the Apostle John as the author of the Gospel of 
John, and his theory's necessity to find a plotter outside of the circle 
of the Twelve Disciples (for they too had to be fooled into believing that 
Jesus had really died and had risen from the dead), has necessitated 
the creation of this fourteenth soul. 

John 13:23 says that at the Last Supper there was sitting at 
Christ's side "leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus 
loved. " In such a way the Fourth Gospel, the Gospel of John, continually 
refers to its author; and Irenaeus, the Church Father (170 A.D. ) gives 
us evidence that the writer was no one else than the Apostle John him- 
self. John in modesty does not refer to himself by name anywhere in 
his Gospel. In fact, only by realizing that John is the author can we 
explain why the writer of this Fourth Gospel never even once names the 
disciple John when the other three Gospels show him as one of the most 
prominent of the disciples, one of the "Inner Three" composed of Peter, 
James, and John. Only Peter, James, and John were permitted the joy 
of seeing Christ raise Jairus' daughter from the dead (Mark 5:37), and 
only these same three were privileged to see the transfiguration of Christ 
(Mark 9:2). Why does the Fourth Gospel never mention by name this 
prominent disciple of the Twelve? For two thousand years all branches 
of the Church have come forth with one answer, viz . , John himself, one 
of the Twelve wrote the Fourth Gospel, just as Irenaeus and Polycarp 
testified. And the simple Greek of this Gospel is in style and vocabu- 
lary, with its repeated meta tauta expressions, the same as the Greek 
of the three Epistles and the Book of Revelation which were also written 
by John the Apostle. 

Yet with all of this, Schonfield asserts that the disciple whom 
Jesus loved, who had the seat next to Jesus (John 13:23) was not the 


Apostle John, one of the Twelve, but another John, the arch-plotter Dis- 
ciple John, the fourteenth at the Supper. Where, however, is there ev- 
idence for such a one at the last supper? Where is there evidence even 
for his existence? Mark 14:17 speaks only of the Twelve being with 
Jesus. Matthew speaks of no others. Luke 22:14 says, "And when the 
hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him!' Thus 
nowhere is there evidence for another outside of the twelve being at the 
Last Supper, except for the fact that Schonfield's theory requires a plot- 
ter to be with Christ during his final hours and yet not be one of the 
twelve. Luke 22:14, "He sat down, and the twelve apostles with him," 
should settle the matter. He and the twelve alone were there, and 
Schonfield's fourteenth chair is not only unsupported imagination, but 
it is also contrary to the only available evidence . Da Vinci and the 
Church for two millennia have not miscounted the chairs; Schonfield's 
theory runs against the facts. 

On and on this could continue, but it all boils down to the same 
basic argument. Schonfield (p. 143) blames Jesus for having "deliberately 
maneuvered" Caiaphas and the Jewish Sanhedrin to condemn Jesus; but 
the only evidence available, that which is found in the records gathered 
into what we today call the New Testament, declare that a sinless, in- 
nocent, and guileless Jesus Christ was "by wicked hands" condemned, 
crucified, and slain (Acts 2:23; Matthew chapters 26-27; etc.). 

Schonfield asserts that "Imagination has clearly been employed to 
build up a picture and to lend solemnity and significance to the Cruci- 
fixion" (p. 147), but the only evidence available declares that the facts 
reported are the sober truth as reported by eye witnesses (Luke 1:12-18; 
John 20:30-31: 2 Peter 1:12-18). 

Schonfield suggests that the story of Joseph of Arimathea begging 
Pilate for the body of Jesus and the story that two thieves were crucified 
with Jesus are intertwined with later recollections and with Luke 's read- 
ing in Josephus that he, Josephus, once begged Titus to stop the already - 
in-progress crucifixion of three of his friends (p. 157). Yet the only 
available evidence does not indicate in any way that Luke ever even read 
these passages in Josephus' voluminous writings. Even the alleged sim- 
ilarities in the two accounts are extremely superficial. No, the only 
available evidence portrays, as prophesied by Isaiah 53:9 seven centuries 
before Christ, that it was necessary for the Messiah to die with wicked 
men and to be buried with the rich before his resurrection. The Gospel 
accounts all report these actions as historic facts, and not recollections 
of a century later. 

Schonfield theorized (p. 165) that the empty tomb can be explained 
by his scheme that the plotters had removed the body to revive Jesus. 


Then, he supposes, developed the belief of the Apostles in their master's 
resurrection which was an understandable mistake (pp. 172-74). Further 
he supposes, by the unforeseen jabbing of a lance into Christ's side by 
an unwarned soldier, the Master may have been killed and his recovery 
prevented. Yet the only available evidence tells of a sinless, spotless 
Saviour, who came to the earth as the Lamb of God to die for man's 
sins, who was crucified by wicked hands, who was dead and buried, 
and who on the third day rose from the dead demonstrating to all that 
he truly was the Son of God (John 2:18-22; Matthew 28: Mark 16; Luke 
24: John 20-21; Acts 1; I Corinthians 15; I John 1). 

The Plotting Christ is a literary fiction figure; there is no factual 
evidence to support his ever having been seen by anyone. No one ever 
wrote of having spoken to him. He has not been exhumed by the arche- 
ologist's spade or by the scholar's research; he has been drawn only by 
the paintbrush of the skeptic. He is a nonexistent phantom -shadow whom 
no one has ever touched. 

The Christ of the Bible, the only Christ there is evidence for, is 
One who was seen alive from the dead by the Apostles. Thus the learned 
Luke in his precise and erudite Greek records: 

To whom [the Apostles] also he showed himself alive 
after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen 
of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertain- 
ing to the kingdom of God. 

By this verse Luke calls to the jury's mind the true facts of this case, 
viz. , that over and over the risen Christ appeared to those who had 
followed Him. Their doubts melted away by His oft appearances. He 
ate fish and" invited them to feel His wounds to convince them that He 
was not a mere spirit or a mirage. They heard His words and saw 
His ascension. He had been dead- -the Romans and His fanatical reli- 
gious enemies saw to this. The tomb had been sealed and the guards 
had been posted. Yet He arose. The evidence, says Luke, infallibly 
points to only this conclusion. 

Paul the Apostle further summarized the evidence for the resur- 
rection from the dead of the Bible's Christ in I Corinthians 15. With 
this testimony given on behalf of the one true Christ this review of 
Schonfield's mythical plotting Christ closes. No, the Sinless-One was 
not a fraud; He was holy, pure, and undefiled. He died for our sins 
and we will be saved if we but trust in Him. He comes to the bar of 
justice with evidence for His existence. Beside Him there is no other. 


Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1968. $3.50, 146 pp. 

A book review on Dr. Robert G. Lee need not mention his elo- 
quent language, masterful illustrations and excellent interpretations. In 
this work, he does all these as he plumbs the depths of the meaning in 
the seven statements from the cross. His broad knowledge of literature, 
familiarity with the Scriptures and perception of personality give new 
insights on these words. While his goal is to prepare a work for the 
Lenten season, the pastor and teacher will regard this as a sourcebook 
for year-around information and inspiration. The illustrations and quotes 
by the author are worth the price of the book. 

Dr. Lee always expresses some interesting interpretations. He 
assumes paradise (Abraham's bosom) to be heaven (p. 50). When the 
Lord Jesus said, "Woman, behold thy son, " He no longer regarded Mary 
as His mother. She would be the mother of John. Hereafter, she was 
on the same plane as any other mother. Mary was now just a believer, 
not Mother! Following Calvin and B. H. Carroll, the author suggests 
that Christ's spiritual death included the suffering of His soul in hell. 
He was separated from the Father and suffered in hell. The vinegar 
offered to the crucified Christ contained no opiates. Vinegar was offered 
as an insult (pp. 103, 104). 

At times, Dr. Lee uses symbols, expressions and illustrations 
that will yield meaning only to the well-read and well-taught believers. 
It appears that the word "thought" on page 87 would be better stated as 
"though." Dr. Lee, author of many books, Bible conference speaker 
and past President of Southern Baptist Convention, is a giant in the Lord's 

literary service! 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

EZRA ANV WEHEMIAH. ^y G. Coleman Luck. Moody Press, Chi- 

cago, reprint. $.95, 127 pp. (paperback). 

A great deal of information on the books of Ezra and Nehemiah 
can be purchased for only ninety-five cents. Moody Press is wise to 



reprint this profitable work of 1961 in the Everyman's Bible Commen- 
tary series. 

Dr. G. Coleman Luck, Chairman of Moody's Bible Department, 
gives practical, historical and archeological facts on two often neglected 
books. He emphasizes courage with dedication and leadership with per- 
severance. The lessons for today are: get right with God now and 
stay right with Him continually. His book backgrounds are interesting 
and his outlines easy to follow. Dr. Luck considers some of the diffi- 
cult problems such as the variations between the genealogies of Ezra 
chapter 2 and Nehemiah chapter 7. These seeming discrepancies he 
explains as follows: Ezra's list contains the names of the Jews who 
planned to return to Palestine, while Nehemiah' s list has the names of 
those who actually returned. 

The author devotes slightly more space to Ezra than Nehemiah as 
to pages. His footnotes are valuable but set forth in small print. Some 
references to the PULPIT COMMENTARY could be replaced by a more 
current and accurate work. On page 55, line 5, the letter "I" probably 
requires a "t" with it to make sense. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

feldt. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, Mo. , 1970. 145pp. $4.95. 

This volume is the third in a three -volume series published by 
Concordia, the first two being THE CHURCH OF THE CATACOMBS by 
Walter Oetting and THE CHURCH OF THE MIDDLE AGES by Carl A. 
Volz. Small in size but fine in quality these works supply an excellent 
introduction to these successive periods of Church History. 

The present volume scans the period from the late 13th century 
to the close of the 16th, supplying necessary facts and helpful summaries. 
The work of Luther, Zwingli and Calvin is examined and evaluated. Some 
excellent paragraphs appear here giving a brief comparison of the views 
of these three men. The English and Scottish Reformations are given 
a chapter in the Counter Reformation within the Catholic Church. The 
material is handled in an interesting, highly readable fashion. Some 
readers will feel that certain men and movements have been slighted. 
Menno Simons and the Mennonites are mentioned in just one sentence. 
No word is to be found concerning the Brethren of the Common Life, a 
group which certainly had some influence upon the thinking of Luther. 
But this is not a book for specialists. It is for those who wish to ac- 
quaint themselves or refresh themselves in the main outlines of the 


history of the Church of this period. Pastors, laymen and teachers 
will find it useful and interesting reading. 

The Appendix is a small collection of readings from primary 
sources including excerpts from "The Imitation of Christ" by Thomas 
a Kempis, "The Praise of Folly" by Erasmus, "The Freedom of a 
Christian" by Luther, "The Seven Ordinances of the True Church" by 
the Dutch Anabaptist, Dietrich Philips, and others. This reviewer is 
grateful to the Concordia Publishers for this volume and the others in 
the series. 

Ivan H. French 
Grace Theological Seminary 

JESUS " HUMAN AMD VI i/INE By. H. D. McDonald. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1968. 144 pp. $3.95 

This small volume by the vice -principal of the London Bible Col- 
lege is an excellent introduction to the Christology of the New Testament. 
There is fine scholarship here combined with a lucidity of expression 
that makes the work useful to both layman and pastor. 

The book is divided into five sections under the headings: The 
Human Reality, The Divine Reality, The Redeeming Reality, The Exalted 
Reality and the Ultimacy of Jesus Christ. Unequal treatment is given 
these sections, only one page being devoted to the last one. No attempt 
is made to wrestle with the vexing problems of Christ's person, such as 
the limitations involved in the incarnation, but this is an introduction, 
not an exhaustive treatise. 

The faith of the author in the deity of Christ and the authority 
of Scripture is evident throughout. Pastors and teachers will delight in 
some of the special gems of truth sprinkled here and there. Dr. McDonald 
draws a delightful analogy between the miraculous virgin birth of our 
Lord and the new birth of every believer. The three temptations are 
set down epigrammatically as "Be selfish! Be successful! Be spec- 
tacular!" Concerning our exalted Lord we are reminded that there is a 
King upon that throne, therefore we have ability . . . there is a Man 
upon the throne, therefore we have sympathy . . . there is a Priest 
upon the throne, therefore we have representation . . . there is a 
Lamb upon the throne, therefore we have salvation" (p. 134). 

This is a solid, useful work that will fill an important place in 
the library of the student of the Bible and Theology. 

Ivan H. French 
Grace Theological Seminary 








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SPRING 1972 

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Professor of New Testament Language and Literature 

Covenant Theological Seminary 

The writings from the sub-Apostolic Church in the period just 
subsequent to the time of the New Testament, are important in enabling 
us to compare doctrines continued by the tradition of the church in the 
light of the Biblical teaching of the canonical Old and New Testaments. 
An important subject for comparison is the Holy Spirit as He is pre- 
sented in the Apostolic Fathers. One recent author has commented in 
connection with one of the earliest Apostolic Fathers, Clement of Rome, 
in the First Epistle to the Corinthians that there are just passing ref- 
erences to the Holy Spirit and that "the doctrine of the Spirit is only 
inchoate" in this epistle just mentioned. 

Such a statement raises for us several questions regarding the 
doctrine of the Spirit not only as they might relate to I Clement but also 
to all of the writings of the Apostolic Fathers. Is it true that references 
in I Clement to the Holy Spirit are referred to only in "passing," and 
are the references actually few and far between in the Apostolic Fathers 
as a whole? Is the terminology in reference to the Holy Spirit in the 
Apostolic Fathers similar to that of the Old and New Testaments, or 
both? Is the teaching about the Spirit in I Clement and elsewhere in 
the Fathers only inchoate and actually inconsequential, or do the doc- 
trinal concepts suggested correspond to many of those set forth in both 
of the Testaments? What divergences, if any, from the Biblical doctrine 
of the Holy Spirit can be detected in the Fathers? 

In this study of the Holy Spirit in the Apostolic Fathers the fol- 
lowing works have been examined :^ The First Epistle of Clement to the 
Corinthians (dated between 75 and 110 A, D. ); 2 Clement to the Corin- 
thians 4 (+ 150 A.D. ); The Epistles of Ignatius (98-117 A. D. ); The 
Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians (c. 110-115 A. D. ); The Didache 
(2nd century A. D. , possibly early 2nd century); The Epistle of Barnabas 
(the end of the 1st century or beginning of the second, A.D.); The Shep- 
herd of Hermas (c. 120-150 A.D. ); The Martyrdom of Polycarp (c. 156 
A.D. ); and The Epistle to Diognetus (of uncertain date, but possibly 2nd 
or 3rd century, A. D. ). 


Evaluation of the Number of References to the 
Holy Spirit in the Apost o lic Fathers 

In comparison with over 200 references to the Spirit in the New 
Testament5 the Fathers have in excess of 70° which is comparable to 
the number of times to which reference is made to the Spirit in the Old 
Testament. ' Such references can be found in almost all of the Fathers 
and are distributed in the following way: 

1 Clement 11 

2 Clement 6 
Ignatius 6 
Poly carp to the Philippians 1 
The Didache 3 
The Epistle of Barnabas 4 
The Shepherd of Hermas 41 
The Martyrdom of Polycarp _3 

Total 75 

Some of these references are grouped in one section or sections of a 
particular work due to the nature of the author's thought, such being the 
case in 2 Clement 14:3-5 (6 references), Hermas, Mand. 10:3 (7 uses), 
MancL 11 (13 uses), and Hermas, Sim . 5:6, 5-7 (8 uses). 

The Epistle to Diognetus is the only work in the Apostolic Fathers 
which does not make reference to the Spirit, which may reflect a later 
date of authorship for the work (possibly 3rd century A. D. ), ° when the 
teaching on the Holy Spirit does not seem to be prominent. ° Although 
the Didache refers to the Spirit only three times, two of the three uses 
occur quite appropriately in that section of instructions for Christians 
given in the last half of the work (sections 7-16) when the sacrament of 
baptism is discussed with the baptismal formula "into the name of the 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" being given twice (Didache 7:1 and 3). 

That the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians refers to the Spirit 
only once (5:3) may be attributed to the subject matter of the epistle 
which consists of a warning concerning church disorders and apostasy 
and of the letters of Ignatius to the Philippians. But when bringing in 
the practical aspects of living a virtuous Christian life, Polycarp does 
refer to the Spirit in a statement about "lust warring against the Spirit 
. . . ." which seems to be a composite thought from Gal. 5:17 and 
I Peter 2:11. 

Thus we observe that in almost all of the Apostolic Fathers there 
is considerable reference to, and discussion of, the Holy Spirit which is 
sufficient to indicate that the doctrine of the Spirit was important in the 


life of the sub-Apostolic Church. 

The Terminology Used in the Apostolic 
Fathers for the Holy Spirit 

In the Old Testament the names used to express the concept of 
the Divine Spirit vary, with the terms "the Spirit" and "the Spirit of the 
Lord" occurring most frequently (about 25 times each), while the phrase 
"Spirit of God" is used 11 times, and the term "Holy Spirit" is only ex- 
pressed in three places. 

In contrast the New Testament in its more frequent reference to 
the Spirit only uses "Spirit of the Lord" in three passages, and refers 
to the Spirit of God" 17 times, but very frequently the two expressions, 
"the Spirit" and "the Holy Spirit, " are employed (over 90 times each). 
Almost half of the uses of "Holy Spirit" (41 times) occur in the Acts of 
the Apostles, with the Gospels having 26 occurrences and Paul's epistles 
17. It is Paul who employs most frequently the term "Spirit of God, " 
with 12 of the 17 uses. The expression "the Spirit of the Lord" occurs 
only once each, in the Gospels (Luke 4:18 in a quotation from the Old 
Testament), in Acts (5:9) and in Paul (2 Cor. 3:18). 

The terminology of the Fathers in reference to the Spirit is gen- 
erally that employed in the two Testaments, but the pattern of frequency 
more nearly follows the New Testament in not often using the terms, 
"Spirit of the Lord" (only 3 times) and "Spirit of God" (only once) and 
in using more often the words, "Holy Spirit" (38 times), and "Spirit" 
(22 times). In addition to New Testament usage the Apostolic Fathers 
introduce three new terms: "the Divine Spirit" (used 7 times in Hermas ), 
"the delicate Spirit" (Hermas Mand. 5:2,6; compared Hermas Mand. 5:1, 
3); and "the Spirit of the Godhead" (twice in Hermas, both of which, 
however, are used in the same context with the expressions, "Holy Spirit" 
and "Spirit," Hermas 11). 

It is obvious, therefore, that the Apostolic Fathers show famili- 
arity with the New Testament usage of terms for Holy Spirit and gen- 
erally follow this pattern of expression. In the case of the occasional 
use by the Fathers of expressions found more frequently for Spirit in 
the Old Testament it is to be observed that of the three uses of the 
name "Spirit of the Lord" by the Fathers, two are a part of quotations 
from the Old Testament. One occurs in the Epistle of Barnabas 14:9, 
and quotes Isa. 61:1,2 where both in the Hebrew and the LXX the term, 
"Spirit of the Lord," occurs. The other appears in I Clement 21:2, 
being a quotation of Proverbs 20:27 where there is a textual problem 
(I Clement having ttveuuci Kupfou , whereas the Hebrew and LXX of Pro- 
verbs 20:27 have n 1 n ? 1J and ty&s Kupfou, respectively). 10 The third 


instance of this expression in the Fathers is also in the framework of 
reference to the teaching of the Old Testament, where in the Ep. Barn. 
9:2 in quoting a passage from the Old Testament he introduces it with 
the words, "the Spirit of the Lord prophesies. " 

So only in Old Testament quotations where the term, "Spirit of 
the Lord, " occurs or as an introduction to an Old Testament quotation 
is the phrase to be found in the Apostolic Fathers, and that basically 
only in one document, the Epistle of Barnabas. 

The only reference in the Fathers to the phrase, "Spirit of God, " 
a designation frequently used in both the Old and New Testaments, is 
found in Hermas, Mand. 10:2 where it is used interchangeably with two 
other terms, "Spirit," and "Holy Spirit," both of which, as we have ob- 
served, are common expressions in the New Testament. 

In overall pattern, therefore, the terminology for Spirit in the 
Fathers generally follows the usage of the New Testament, only em- 
ploying the more distinctive Old Testament expression, "Spirit of the 
Lord," in a very few places where the Old Testament is quoted or 
where a quotation is introduced. It may be reasonable to suggest that 
this general uniformity to the usage of the New Testament terminology 
for Spirit argues for the knowledge of, reverence for, and dependence 
upon the New Testament on the part of the Apostolic Fathers. 

The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit 
as Seen in the Apostolic Fathers 

The Person of the Holy Spirit 

It has been said that ". . . . upon the whole their [i.e., the 
early Christian writings] testimony is unmistakably in favor of the per- 
sonality [of the Holy Spirit], " 11 On the basis of several references in 
the Fathers to the Spirit which present a high view of His person, a 
viewpoint comparable to statements in the New Testament regarding the 
supernatural character and work of the Spirit, it is proper to say that 
the Fathers go beyond just identifying the personality of the Spirit, but 
likewise present a concept of the Holy Spirit's person which is super- 
natural and divine. The Spirit in several places is associated with the 
Father and the Son in such a way as to suggest that the Apostolic Fathers 
counted Him to be equal with the other two members of the Trinity. 
Twice in the Didache (7:1 and 7:3), in reference to the baptismal form- 
ula, the Holy Spirit is included with the Father and the Son, and the 
formulary expression is identical to that set forth in Matthew 28:19 
( e's to ovopa toO Ttaxpos kou tou uiou xai tou ay^ou TrveuyaTos ). 


It is tempting to suggest that either the Didache and Matthew had a com- 
mon source or, better, that the author(s) of the Didache knew the contents 
of the Gospel of Matthew. 

In Ignatius Mag . 13:1 the Spirit is associated with the Son and the 
Father in a challenge to obedience to the Word for prosperity in the 
Christian life. In this passage the Son and the Father in that order are 
associated together in one prepositional phrase (with ev), the Spirit fol- 
lowing in a separate phrase. 13 

In Hermas, Sim . 5:6,5 there is a strong statement that the Holy 
Spirit is the creator of all things and also that He is the pre -existent one 
( to TTveuya ayiov to irpoov ), but this passage does not bear on the per- 
son of the Spirit Himself since it seems to be identifying the concept of 
Holy Spirit in this context with Christ. 

In His dying prayers (Martyrdom of Polycarp 14:2) Polycarp ex- 
presses his gratitude to God for the coming resurrection life and con- 
siders the Holy Spirit as well as the Father, and the Christ to be re- 
sponsible for this blessing, and in 14:3 of the same work in an expres- 
sion of final praise Polycarp again includes all three persons of the 
Trinity, closely associating here the Holy Spirit with Christ in a single 
auv phrase (auv auti <ai TrveOuaTi ay^. In concluding notes by a later 
scribe (Martyrdom of Polycarp 22:3) the thought is set forth that divine 
glory belongs to the Lord Jesus Christ, to the Father and the Holy Spirit, 
and in this case the Father and the Spirit are closely associated together 
in one ouv phrase (auv T(£ tto.tpi kcci ayiu) Trveuyaxi e's tous aiujvas tgjv 
aiuivu)V ). 

In Ignatius Ephesians 18:2 the Trinity is associated together in 
the incarnation of Christ, " a thought similarly expressed, but in dif- 
ferent words, in Luke 1:35. 

The statement in Hermas, Mand. 11:21 is that the Spirit is Di- 
vine (the expression is, "Divine Spirit", to Trveuya to 6eiov ). 

That "the Divine Spirit coming from above is powerful" (the 
clause is irveupa to 0eiov avoo9ev epxoijevov 6uvaTov eot i)in a general 
context which associates this concept with the Spirit of the Godhead and 
of the Holy Spirit (Hermas, Mand. 11:21 and 11:8-10) further confirms 
the conclusion that the Apostolic Fathers present the Spirit as a super- 
natural person. 

That the term "Spirit" or "Holy Spirit" carried in the Fathers a 
divine connotation is further argued by the fact that in three places the 
Son of God or Christ is said to be the Holy Spirit (Hermas, Sim. 9:1, 1.; 


Sim . 5:6,5 and 2 Clem. 14:4. 15 

Thus, since in the Apostolic Fathers the Spirit is associated in the 
baptismal formula and in benedictions so closely with the Father and 
the Son and since the term, Holy Spirit, is used in the same way of the 
divine Son of God, Jesus Christ, as of the Spirit, we conclude that the 
concept of the divine personality of the Holy Spirit is generally taught in 
the Apostolic Fathers, although not to the extent nor as clearly as set 
forth by Christ and the Apostles in the New Testament record. 

The Work of the Holy Spirit 

In a number of ways the work of the Holy Spirit in the Fathers 
corresponds to that developed on the subject in the New Testament. 

The first of these areas concerns the emphasis given to the 
Spirit's inspiring and authoring Holy Scripture. In introducing a quota- 
tion of Ezekiel 33:11-27, 1 Clement 8:1 refers to the Old Testament 
prophets as speaking through the Holy Spirit (6xa TrvEoyaTos ayi'ou ). 
This is similar to Acts 4:25 where the identical prepositional phrase is 
used in referring to David as being used by God to give the prophecy 
in Psalm 2 : Iff. Several times in the Fathers Old Testament quotations 
are introduced by the statements, "the Holy Spirit says" (1 Clement 13:1, 
in quoting Jeremiah 9:23, 24), "the Holy Spirit spoke" (1 Clement 16:2,3, 
before citing Isa. 53), "Christ through His Holy Spirit calls us" (1 Cle- 
ment 22:1, in quoting Psalm 34:11-17), and "the Spirit of the Lord pro- 
phesies" (Ep. Barn. 9:2, in citing Psalm 33(34):12 and Exodus 15:26). 
In some cases the statement of inspiration by the Spirit is not followed 
by a direct quotation of Scripture, such a case being in Ignatius Phila . 
7:2 where the statement, "the Holy Spirit preaches and says" is not suc- 
ceeded by a direct quote from either Testament but by what sounds like a 
combination of 1 Cor. 6:19, Ephesians 4:1-3; 5:1, and 1 Thessalonians 1:6. 16 

Presented as though an accepted principle of the Church 1 Cle- 
ment 45:2 concludes that the Holy Scriptures are given through the Holy 
Spirit ' which Scripture in the context of the immediate sections 45-47 
seems to include the Old Testament and possibly parts of the New. *-° 

Secondly, there are allusions in the Fathers as to the Spirit being 
involved in the beginnings of the Christian's salvation. The Spirit is said 
to have prepared the men whom God calls (Didache 4:10), and He is also 
the author of the hope which those who believe in Jesus and participate 
in the sacrament of baptism possess (Ep. Barn. 11:11). 

Further, the Spirit is also represented in the Fathers as being 
a vital spiritual influence in the development of the Christian Life. He 
is said to dwell in (Hermas Mand. 5:1,2)19 and to be poured out in 


abundance upon the Christian (1 Clement 2:2). 20 Hermas Mand . 11:9 
suggests that those with the prophetic spirit are filled with the Holy Spirit 
(compare also Hermas Mand. 10:2,5). 21 As to the Spirit's ministry of 
influencing and developing a holy life in the Christian, Christ is said to 
call us to such a life through the Holy Spirit and Psalm 34:11-1722 is 
quoted as supporting this thought (1 Clement 22:1). 1 Clement 21:2 
argues that since the Spirit of the Lord is a lamp searching the inward 
parts of the Christian, therefore, the believer is to live a godly and 
pure life (compare also Hermas Sim. 5:6,5). The test of a true pro- 
phet who has the Spirit according to Hermas Mand. 11:7 is to be found 
in his meek and godly life, and the fact that the Apostles and teachers 
of the New Testament era walked in righteousness and truth is to be 
attributed to the fact that they had received the Holy Spirit (Hermas. 
Sim. 9:25, 2). That the Christian can grieve the Spirit (compare Ephe- 
sians 4:30-32) by committing acts of sin is taught in Hermas Mand 10:2,2 
where ill temper and doublemindedness are set forth as grieving elements. 

As he is set forth in the New Testament, so the Holy Spirit in 
the Apostolic Fathers is the one who grants charismatic gifts to the be- 
lievers. The Apostles used spiritual discernment and knowledge (com- 
pare I Cor. 2:10 and 12:8) in choosing proper officers for the Church 
(1 Clement 42:4). In preaching the Word of God purely, the Apostles 
and New Testament teachers were guided by the Spirit (Hermas Sim . 
9:25, 2), and they preached in the assurance of the Holy Spirit (1 Cle- 
ment 42:3). As to the prophetic office, it is the Spirit on the true pro- 
phet who enables Him to speak prophetically (Hermas Mand. 11:9, 10), 
whereas the false prophet does not have the power of the Divine Spirit 
(Hermas Mand. 11:2) (compare 1 John 4:1-3). As to the gift of faith 
(1 Cor. 12:9), Hermas Mand„ 11:9 knows of righteous men who have 
the faith of the Divine Spirit. 

Thus it is clearly observable that the presentation in the Fathers 
of the divine person and effective supernatural work of the Spirit is quite 
comparable to, though not as full and complete as that set forth in the 
New Testament. 

Some Divergences in the Apostolic Fathers 
from the Biblical Doctrine of the Holy Spirit 

Even a cursory reading of the Fathers will show some erroneous and 
enigmatic statements regarding the Spirit obviously at variance with Bibli- 
cal teaching. A few illustrations will suffice. 1 Clement 63:2 suggests 
that there were others than the Apostles and their close acquaintances in 
subsequent times, who through the Spirit were authors of Scripture. 23 

In Hermas Mand. 5:1 and 2 the erroneous thought is presented 
that the individual Christian can lose the Holy Spirit through a spirit of 


ill temper, bitterness, etc. 2 Clement 14:3 sets forth the enigmatic 
statement that God will receive the spiritual Church back again in the 
Holy Spirit if she is guarded in the flesh without corruption. 

Thus, we conclude from such illustrations of doctrinal divergence, 
that although the statements of the Apostolic Fathers regarding the Holy 
Spirit evidence a first hand knowledge of the New Testament record, yet 
these statements do not set forth as clear, full and true a record on 
this subject as is found in the New Testament itself. 


From this study of the Holy Spirit in the Apostolic Fathers a 
number of conclusions can be drawn. 

In the first place, the references to the Spirit in the Fathers are 
not an infrequent occurrence. Secondly, terminology used by the Fathers 
for the Holy Spirit follows the pattern of the Biblical books, especially 
those of the New Testament. Then, too, it has been observed that the 
teaching in the Fathers concerning the Spirit's person and work is not 
inchoate and inconsequential, and the doctrinal concepts suggested coin- 
cide with many of those set forth in the Old and New Testaments. 

However, it is to be noted that, contrary to the Scripture, the 
teaching by the Fathers on the Spirit is not free from erroneous and 
enigmatic statements. 

On the whole, the presentation ot the Holy Spirit by the Fathers 
evidences the heartbeat of early New Testament Christianity close to the 
time of the Apostolic period. The results of this study do not agree 
with the statement, "The doctrine of the Holy Spirit was not made prom- 
inent till the fourth century. "24 This statement may be true when applied 
to the later Ante-Nicene Fathers but it is certainly not true of the 
Apostolic Fathers. 


1. Henry Bettenson, ed. and trans., The Early Christian Fathers 
(London: Oxford University Press, 1956), p. 41. 

2. Hereafter the Apostolic Fathers are meant when the term "Fathers" 
is used. 

3. Kirsopp Lake, tr. , The Apostolic Fathers , in The Loeb Classical 
Library , 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press , 


4. It is somewhat dubious that Clement wrote this. See Lake, op.cit. , 
Vol. I, p. 126. 

5. About 225. 

6. There are approximately 75 references. 

7. There are in the Old Testament over 60 references to the Divine 

8. Lake, op. cit. , Vo. II, pp. 348, 349. 

9. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, ed. 
S. M. Jackson, Vol. V. (New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1909) 
p. 331, "Holy Spirit." 

.0. Thus, this passage in I Clement 21:2 is suspect as to whether this 
is a valid quotation of an Old Testament reference to the term, 
"Spirit of the Lord. " 

.1. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge , Vol. 
V, p. 331, "Holy Spirit." 

2. The phrases are identical to this both in Didache 7:1 and 7:3, only 
that in the latter reference the Greek article, tou, is omitted in 
the case of each member of the Trinity, concerning which it may 
be suggested that the author thought it was not necessary to repeat 
tou in each case, since he had just included the formula in its 
full form a sentence or two earlier. 

3. It is not necessary to infer on the basis of these two separate pre- 
positional phrases that Ignatius is subordinating the Spirit to the 
Father and the Son, for in the same context there are two other 
prepositional phrases introduced separately by ev which are un- 
doubtedly, to be understood as equally parallel thoughts: lv &pxr\ 

kcu ev xeXei. 

4. The text says, "Our God, Jesus the Christ, was conceived by Mary 
by the dispensation of God .... of the Holy Spirit. " There is 
a textual problem over the word 8eo0, however. See Lake, op. cit. , 
Vol. I, p. 192. 

5. In Hermas Sim. 9:1,1 the Holy Spirit is called the Son of God, 
which expression reminds us of 2 Cor. 3:17. In 2 Clement 14:4 
the Spirit is said to be Christ, and in Hermas Sim. 5:6,5 the 
Holy Spirit seems to be equivalent to the Son of God discussed 
in an earlier part of the section. 

6. The statement reads, "Do nothing without the overseer, keep your 
flesh as the temple of God, love unity, flee divisions, become 
imitators of Jesus Christ, as also He was of His Father. " 

7. Observe the use again of the same prepositional phrase, 6\h tou 

TTveuyotTos ayiou. 

8. The illustrations and quotations are from Daniel, the Psalms, Jesus 
and Paul. 

9. Compare I Corinthians 6:19. 

0. Compare Acts 2:lff. and Romans 5:5. 


21. See also a similar expression regarding the fulness of the Spirit in 
Eph, 5:18 

22. This may be interpreted to mean that the Holy Spirit both divinely 
inspired Psalm 34:11-17 and urges through it the living of a godly 

23. The phrase is, "If you are obedient to the things which we have 
written through the Holy Spirit. " It is possible to take the phrase 
6ia xoO cxyiou Trveuyaxos with UTrrJKooi which would then mean"if you 
are obedient through the Spirit," but the 6 id phrase is too far re- 
moved from uTfrJKooitomake such a suggestion plausible. 

24. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, Vol.V, p. 331, "Holy Spirit." 





Pastor, Blackhawk Baptist Church 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 

The controversy over the principle of "double -fulfillment" in 
the interpretation of prophecy is not a new theological development. 
As far back as Theodore of Mopsuestia, there were conflicting opinions 
as to the validity of applying one prophetic passage to more than one 
situation. Theodore (350-428 A. D. ), who was labeled "The Exegete" 
by his contemporaries, refused to accept any prophetic interpretation 
that approached duplicity. 

In Frederick Farrar' s History of Interpretation, Theodore of 
Mopsuestia is mentioned in connection with Zechariah 9:8-10. Farrar 

In the ninth chapter of Zechariah, Theodore thought 
it an instance of frigid and foolish interpretation to 
apply one clause historically and another allegorically, 
to refer one to Zerubbabel, the next to Christ, and 
then to go back again to Zerubbabel. He refuses to 

read the latest revelations into the earliest utterances 


Time has not solved the problem. Today there are good men on 
both sides of the debate. Perhaps Dwight Pentecost has stated the case 
in favor of the "double -sense" principle better than any other: 

Few laws are more important to observe in the inter- 
pretation of prophetic Scriptures than the law of double 

The author holds the B. A. degree from Cedarville College, and the 
Th. M. degree from Dallas Theological Seminary. He is presently pur- 
suing doctoral studies at Grace Theological Seminary. 



reference. Two events, widely separated as to the 
time of their fulfillment, may be brought together into 
the scope of prophecy. 

Other men who have agreed with Pentecost as to the legitimacy 
of this principle are: Berkeley Mickelsen, Bernard Ramm, C. L. Fein- 
berg, Charles Ryrie, and John Walvoord. 

The other side of the issue is championed by Milton S. Terry. 
He has devoted several pages in his book on Hermeneutics to the ob- 
jections which he has to the "law of double reference. " Some of these 
objections will be answered later, but perhaps this statement by Terry 
will open the door to debate: 

. . . the moment we admit the principle that portions 
of Scripture contain an occult or double sense, we in- 
troduce an element of uncertainty in the Sacred Vol- 
ume, and unsettle all scientific interpretation. 

Terry also quotes Owen and Ryle, in that order: "If Scripture 
has more than one meaning, it has no meaning at all. " "I hold that 
the words of Scripture were intended to have one definite sense and that 
our first objective should be to discover that sense, and adhere rigidly 
to it. " 

Obviously this article will not settle a question that has been the 
source of heated battle for many years. It is the writer's objective to 
clarify the terminology used and the issues involved. For some this 
may add fuel to the fire of disagreement. If we can understand the 
basis of our agreement or disagreement, we will have accomplished 
our objective. For this reason, the first part of the study will be taken 
up with the setting forth of some definitions and distinctions. 

The second part will try to answer the question, "Why the double- 
reference principle?" By this time we hope to have answered some of 
the objections to this principle of interpretation, and to have prepared 
the way for an examination of the passages of Scripture which contain 
the double references. 

This is an important question because: (1) It involves a great 
number of Old Testament passages. (2) It is one of the bones of con- 
tention between Premillennialists and Amillennialists. (3) It is misun- 
derstood by many who would fight for its validity. (4) It is an often - 
mentioned, but little -defined principle. (5) It involves, if carefully 
understood, a proof for, not against, the literal interpretation of the 




The following definitions have been given by various authors and 
theologians : 

J. Edwin Hartell defines double reference as: 

. . . the peculiarity of the writings of the Holy Spirit, 
by which a passage applying primarily to a person or 
event near at hand is used by him at a later time as 
applying to the person of Christ, or the affairs of His 
kingdom. ^ 

A. H. Strong puts it this way: 

Certain prophecies apparently contain a fulness of mean- 
ing which is not exhausted by the event to which they 
most obviously and literally refer. A prophecy which 
had a partial fulfillment at a time not remote from its 
utterance, may find it's chief fulfillment in an event 
far distant. Since the principles of God's administra- 
tion find ever recurring and enlarging illustration in 
history, prophecies which have already had a partial 
fulfillment may have whole cycles of fulfillment yet be- 
fore them. 6 

Another standard definition is from the pen of Thomas Hartwell 
Home : 

The same prophecies frequently have a double meaning, 
and refer to different events, the one near, the other 
remote; the one temporal, the other spiritual or per- 
haps eternal. The prophets thus having several events 
in view, their expressions may be partly applicable to 
one and partly to another, and it is not always easy to 
make the transitions. What has not been fulfilled in 
the first, we must apply to the second; and what has 
already been fulfilled, may often be considered as typ- 
ical of what remains to be accomplished. 

Charles Feinberg points out that the law of double reference, 

. . . may assume any one of several forms. Two 
or more events of a like character may be described 
by a common profile. . . . Future events placed side by 


side in the prophecy, may have great gaps between 
them in their fulfillment. 8 

Charles Ryrie has taken the liberty of separating the two aspects 
of this one law into two distinct laws. The one he calls The Law of 
Double Reference, and the other he has named The Law of Time Refer- 

It is much easier to separate these two laws in a theology book 
than it is in the Scripture. Whenever one finds the first part in oper- 
ation, he is almost sure to find the second. For that reason it seems 
best to consider them together. 

From the definitions and statements of the above-mentioned theo- 
logians, we may make the following observations: 

1. In double reference prophecy, the first fulfillment of the 
prophecy usually is found in a person or event close in time to the 
prophetic utterance. 

2. In double reference prophecy, the first fulfillment is us- 
ually only a partial fulfillment of the total prophetic message. 

3. In double reference prophecy, the ultimate fulfillment is 
usually found in the person of Christ or the affairs of His kingdom. 

Double fulfillment is particularly true of the predic- 
tions . . . concerning the Babylonian Captivity, the event 
of the day of the Lord, the return from Babylon, the 
world-wide dispersion of Israel, and their future re- 
gathering from all the corners of the earth . . . " 

4. In double reference prophecy, the first fulfillment is usual- 
ly temporal, whereas, the ultimate fulfillment may be spiritual or eternal. 

5. In double reference prophecy, part of the prophetic message 
may be fulfilled close at hand, and that fulfillment in turn becomes an- 
other prophecy. A. J. Gordon says, "Prophecy has no sooner become 
history, than history in turn becomes prophecy. "-*■ 

6. In double reference prophecy, two or more prophecies may 
be grouped together in one area of vision, although they are really at 
different distances in fulfillment. 

7. In double reference prophecy, observations 5 and 6 are 
usually found to be working in the same passage. 


There are many other terms beside "double reference" which are 
used by various writers and theologians to describe what has been set 
forth in the seven observations we have just discussed. In most cases, 
the following terms are used interchangeably with "double reference" 
and may be understood to stand for any or all of the parts of the law: 
Near and Far View, Double Sense, Multiple Fulfillment, Gap Prophecy, 
Foreshortening, and several others. 

There are two terms which need special mention here. "Corn- 
penetration" is a term used by Catholic writers to define what they 
understand by this law of double reference. "In an Old Testament pas- 
sage, the near meaning and the remote meaning for the New Testament 
so compenetrate that the passage at the same time and in the same 
word refers to the near and the remote New Testament meaning. "12 

The other term comes from the writing of Beecher. It seems 
to stand for the second aspect of double reference prophecy, the "time- 
reference" application. Beecher used the term "Generic Prophecy" in 
this way: 

A generic prophecy is one which regards an event as 
occurring in a series of parts separated by intervals, 
and expresses itself in language that may apply indif- 
ferently to the nearest part, or to the remoter parts, 
or to the whole--in other words, a prediction which, 
in applying to the whole of a complex event, also ap- 
plies to some of the parts. 

The one fact that is obvious as one studies the material available 
on this subject is that each writer seems to have his own idea as to the 
meaning of this law of interpretation. It is because of this wide variety 
of understandings that so many have rejected the right and legitimate 
use of a principle which is necessary to the proper exposition of pro- 
phetic Scripture. 


Distinguish Between the Early and Later Meaning of "Double Reference" 

The law of double reference seems to have undergone somewhat 
of an evolution since its early mention. Early expositors seemed to 
have held that "double fulfillment" was one literal fulfillment in the im- 
mediate context of the prophecy, and a second or multiple fulfillments 
which were not literal , but were referred to as allegorical or mystical 


T. H. Home's comment on Hosea 11:1 will serve to illustrate: 

This passage in its literal sense, was meant of God's 
delivering the children of Israel out of Egypt; but in 
its secondary and mystical sense, there can be no 
doubt that an allusion was intended by the Holy Spirit 
to the call of the infant Christ out of the same coun- 
try. 14 

Today's writers would not express themselves this way. A double 
fulfillment prophecy loses not one bit of its literalness when it is ful- 
filled the second or third time. This would violate our basic system 
of hermeneutics. "Double fulfillment is literal fulfillment and therefore 
consistent with basic rules of interpretation. "15 

Distinguish Between Interpretation and Application 

The law of double reference is not the Pandora's Box of Biblical 
Hermeneutics as some opponents would claim. It is the failure of many 
to distinguish application from interpretation that has caused such an ac- 
cusation to be leveled at the principle. To accept the law of double re- 
ference as a legitimate tool for interpretation of prophecy is not to open 
the door to all kinds of fanciful notions as to the hidden and allegorical 
meanings that might be alluded to in a prophetic passage. 

To speak of the law of double reference is to speak of interpre- 
tation, not application. Double reference is not one interpretation and 
manifold applications. It is one message for two audiences separated 
in time. 

Ryrie's example is sufficient to show why we must be careful to 
make this difference: 

Psalm 122:6, may well be used as an example of the 
proper distinction between interpretation and applica- 
tion. The verse reads: 'Pray for the peace of Jeru- 
salem: they shall prosper that love thee. ' The literal 
interpreter understands this verse in a twofold sense: 

(1) The primary reference is to the city of Jerusa- 
lem, and that for which it, as the capital, stands re- 
presentative, that is, the nation Israel and the land. 

(2) There is also a secondary application, but not an 
interpretation, allowed, that is, an expression of the 
general truth that in all generations divine blessing 
has rested upon all who forwarded the work of those 
identified with the Lord. The application, however, 


does not in any way take the place of the interpreta- 
tion . . . 17 

If the above example would have had reference secondarily to a 
specific event or person, it would have been within the boundaries of 
the double reference principle. It does not, however, so it is one 
statement with unlimited applications, not one prophecy with two literal 

Distinguish between Reference and Fulfillment 

Some writers are very careful to make it known that double re- 
ference is unacceptable to them, but that double fulfillment is a valid 
principle. This seems to be more a matter of semantics than anything 
else, but a word of explanation might help. The reason that some en- 
emies of this law reject its use is that they just cannot accept the idea 
that the Holy Spirit had more than one intention when the prophetic mes- 
sage was given. They will concede however, that once the message 
was given, it could have found fulfillments outside the original scope of 
the prophecy. It is for this reason that they prefer fulfillment over re- 
ference or sense. 

This distinction has not been followed in writing this paper. It 
seems to this writer that if the difference is made for the reason given 
above, we are left with the horrid thought that the Holy Spirit Himself 
is surprised with the ultimate fulfillment of His original prophecy. 


Why, in studying the Scriptures, should we expect to find some 
prophecies that are fulfilled more than once? Is it the purpose of the 
Almighty to confuse His people by making the understanding of His Rev- 
elation difficult? Certainly not! It is His desire that all who read might 
understand. It is also true, however, that there were humans involved 
in the writing of the Scripture, and our doctrine of inspiration holds 
that God used their personalities so that they were not simply secre- 
taries taking down dictation. If we are to understand the writings of 
these men, we must understand not only the men themselves, but also 
the circumstances that surrounded their predictive statements, and the 
nature of Old Testament prophecy as well. In other words, we must 
be careful not to read into prophecy, especially Old Testament prophecy, 
all of the characteristics of prophetic revelation which we now under- 
stand because of the fuller message of the New Testament. 

Why is the double reference principle part of the Word of God? 
These reasons seem to stand out: 


Because of the Unchronological Character of the Old Testament Prophecy 

Not a few writers have observed this phenomenon. Raud says: 

God uses spiritual order in writing prophecy . . . 
For example, the second chapter of Isaiah may be di- 
vided into three sections. (1) The vision of the Gentile 
nations flocking to Jerusalem when Christ reigns there, 
to worship Him and learn His laws, (w 2-4) (2) A 
rebuke to idolatrous Israel. (5-11) (3) A warning of 
judgment upon all pride and idolatry in the Day of the 
Lord. (12-22) 

If we should arrange this chapter to suit the time order 
of its fulfillment we should have (2), (3), and (1). But 
then we would lose the force of the rebuke which the 
Lord administered to His wayward nation by, (1) Point- 
ing to the future submission of the Gentiles to Him , 
(2) Denouncing the Jews idolatry, and (3) Warning the 
Jews that His judgment is certain and final. ° 

Feinberg quotes Kellogg: 

. . . because two events are spoken of together or in 
close sequence, is no proof that these events will take 
place simultaneously or even in immediate succession, 
unless the Scripture specifically affirms so. 

Stanley Leathes agrees: 

. . . needless to say, it is contrary to the analysis of 
the prophetic Scriptures to suppose that because events 
are mentioned in immediate juxtaposition that they must 
certainly come to pass in immediate chronological or- 


The fact that the prophet was both a foreteller and a forthteller 
is significant here. Unlike many of our ideas of prophecy, the most 
important aspect of the prophecy to the prophet was the immediate not 
the future. He was interested in his generation and hoped, by the pre- 
diction of things to come, to cause them to repent and return to the God 
who was able to do such tremendous things as the prophet foretold. One 
should not be surprised to find two widely separated events referred to 
in the same chapter or verse, for the Holy Spirit enabled the prophet 
to bring these events together because they had a special meaning to 
his own situation. 


This is much like the character of the New Testament Gospels. 
As the predictive history of the Old Testament is often given according 
to moral or spiritual order, so the actual history of the Gospels: 

We have every reason to believe that where there is a 
difference of order in the presentation of events in the 
Gospels, it is because moral and spiritual considera- 
tions are given precedence over the chronological. 2 1 

One illustration of this is the Sermon on the Mount, which is 
given by Matthew as one connected discourse, but in Luke is found in 
about twenty different places. 

Because of the Limited Perspective of the Prophet 

"In dealing with the predictive aspect of prophecy, we must re- 
member that when God spoke to and through His servants, He did not 
give them unlimited vision. Instead they were confined within a divinely 
limited perspective. "22 

A. H. Strong has given several illustrations of this principle 
from various avenues of life. Perhaps he goes a little overboard with 
his word pictures, but all have helped in the explanation of this rule 
toothers. They are simply listed here without his replete explanations: 

* As in Japanese pictures, the near and the far appear 
equally distant. 

* As in dissolving views, the ultimate and immediate 
future melts into a future immeasurably far away. 

* The candle that shines through a narrow aperture 
sends out its light through an ever -increasing area. 

* Sections of a triangle correspond to one another, but 
the more distant are far greater than the near. 

* The chalet on the mountainside may turn out to be 
only a black cat on the woodpile, or a speck upon 
the window pane. 

* A hill which is seen to rise close behind another is 
found on nearer approach to have receded a great 
way from it. 

* The painter by foreshortening, brings together things 
or parts that are relatively distant from each" other. 23 


Alva J. McClain refers to the limited perspective of the prophet 
Daniel as he prophesied the seventy weeks determined upon the nation of 

... he saw events together on the screen of prophecy 
which in their fulfillment were separated by centuries 
of time. This curious characteristic, so strange to 
Western minds, was in complete harmony with the Ori- 
ental mind, which was little concerned with a continuous 
chronology . . . the Oriental was interested in the next 
important event, not in the time that might intervene . 
The Bible is an Oriental book, humanly speaking. 

There is an interesting verse of Scripture in I Peter which seems 
to shed light on this from the prophets' viewpoint. Peter tells us that 
after the prophets had written, they actually sat down and tried to figure 
out the time element involved in their own prophecies: 

Searching what, or what manner, of time the Spirit of 
Christ who was in them did signify, when he testified 
beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that 
should follow. (I Peter 1:11) 

If the prophets could not understand the time element in their 
prophetic messages, it is proper and true to say that their perspective 
was limited. This does not in any way detract from the truth of their 
statements, since no one would insist that a statement be understood 
in order that it be true, literally true. 

Because of the Christological Orientation of the Scriptures 

Another reason for expecting double reference in prophecy con- 
cerns the Christological orientation of the entire Word of God. When 
Christ was speaking to the two disciples on the road to Emmaus, He 
instructed them concerning Himself, and His text was the writings of 
Moses, and all the prophets. ^ Later on in the same chapter we read; 

These are the words which I spake unto you while I 
was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which, 
were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, 
and in the psalms concerning me . " 

According to Christ's own words, the message of the Old Test- 
ament was the coming Messiah. We should not be surprised then to 
discover that the prophets looked first at their own situation, but ulti- 
mately at the coming Messiah. (We have already observed that double 


reference prophecy is usually fulfilled ultimately in the person of Christ 
or the affairs of His kingdom. ) 

Because of the Necessity of Future Assurance 

Yet another provision was made to confirm men's faith 
in utterances which had regard to the far future. It 
frequently happened that prophets who had to speak of 
such things were also commissioned to predict other 
things which would shortly come to pass; and the ver- 
ification of these latter predictions in their own day 
and generation justified men in believing the other ut- 
terances which pointed to a more distant time. The 
one practically a 'sign' of the other, and if the one 
proved true, the other might be trusted. ^7 

Perhaps one of the best illustrations of this dimension in double 
reference prophecy is found in Gabriel's words to Mary recorded in 
Luke 1:30-33. Gabriel told Mary the following things: 

1. She was to conceive in her womb and bring forth a son, 

2. She was to call his name Jesus. 

3. He was to be great. 

4. He was to be called the Son of the Highest. 

5. The Lord was to give unto him the throne of his father David. 

6. He was to reign over the house of Jacob forever. 

7. And of his kingdom there was to be no end. 28 

The first four parts of this prophecy were fulfilled literally in the 
earthly ministry of Jesus Christ. There is no way, however, that the 
last three parts can be said to have been fulfilled. They are yet future. 
They will yet be fulfilled in Christ. Feinberg's words are pertinent: 

According to the angel's words, Mary literally conceived 
in her womb; literally brought forth a son; His name was 
literally called Jesus; He was literally great; and He was 
literally called the Son of the Highest. Will it not be 
as literally fulfilled that God will yet give to Christ 
the throne of His father David, that he will reign over 
the house of Jacob forever, and that of His glorious 
kingdom there shall be no end?29 


Not one passage was examined under this title that did not have 
a dispute connected with it. To examine every passage that might 


possibly contain double reference prophecy would exceed the limitations 
of space imposed upon this paper. The passages of Scripture that have 
been listed on the charts which follow have been used because they re- 
present the different aspects of this principle, and also because they 
represent the different types of prophecy. 

Certain general rules seem to suggest themselves to one who has 
studied the literature available on this subject. How can you tell if a 
prophetic statement has more than one fulfillment? These suggestions 
may help: 

1. Determine if the prophecy has been fulfilled in its literal 
and complete meaning. Elsa Raud makes the following comment: 

We can know whether or not the law of double reference 
applies to the prophecy we are reading by ascertaining 
whether it has been fulfilled completely and literally. 
Genesis 12:3 says that "in thee shall all families of the 
earth be blessed. " All the families of the earth have 
not yet experienced the blessing in Christ which the 
promise declares . . . e Only a comparatively few 
Jews and Gentiles have thus been blessed in Him. The 
prophecy in Genesis 12:3 will be fulfilled for all the 
families of the earth in the Day of the Lord. ™ 

2. If the prophecy seems to have a double or wider meaning, 
examine that meaning only after you have carefully worked out the pri- 
mary interpretation of the prophecy. What you understand by the first 
fulfillment wilj color your understanding of the second or ultimate ful- 

3. Look for some interpretive comment from the New Testa- 
ment writers to aid your interpretation of the secondary or ultimate 

4. If the understanding you get from the ultimate fulfillment 
is not completely in accord with that which is directly revealed con- 
cerning the person or event, reject it. Start over! In no case does 
our knowledge of a future event or person depend solely on the infor- 
mation contained in a double reference prophecy. 



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The Bible does contain some prophecies that are fulfilled in more 
than one situation. Eventually every Bible student says that, though he 
may not say it in those words. When we understand the reasons for 
our discovery of double reference prophecies, we will not be so con- 
cerned about what to call them, as we are about how to apply them. 
Since the Bible is a miraculous book, we may expect to find some mir- 
aculous things in it. Double reference prophecy is one of God's miracles. 


1. Frederick W. Farrar, History of Interpretation (Grand Rapids: 
Baker Book House, 1961), pp. 217-218. 

2. J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Findlay, Ohio: Dunham 
Publishing Company, 1958), p. 56. 

3. Milton S. Terry, Biblical Hermeneutics (New York: Easton & 
Mains, 1883), p. 383. 

4. Ibid. 

5. J. Edwin Hartell, Biblical Hermeneutics (Grand Rapids: Zonder- 
van Publishing House, 1947), p. 105. 

6. A. H. Strong, Systematic Theology , Vol. II(Philadelphia : Griffith 
and Rowland Press, 1907), p. 138. 

7. Thomas Hartwell Home, Introduction to the Critical Study and 
Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures (New York: Robert Carter & 
Brothers, 1859), I, 390. Quoted by Pentecost in Things to Come , 
p. 46. 

8. Charles L. Feinberg, Premillennialism or Amillennialism (Grand 
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1937), p. 38. 

9. Charles Caldwell Ryrie, The Basis of The Premillennial Faith 
(New York: Loizeaux Brothers, 1953), p. 45 

10. Charles L. Feinberg, p. 38. 

11. A. H. Strong, p. 138. 

12. Bernard Ramm, Protestant Biblical Hermeneutics (Boston: W. A. 
Widd Co. , 1956), p. 234. 

13. Ibid. 

14. Thomas Hartwell Home, p. 643. (The idea for this distinction 
came from an earlier paper on this subject written by Bruce Nolen, 
in 1965.) 

15. Ryrie, p. 42. 

16. Paul Lee Tan, Principles of Literal Interpretation of the Bible , 
(Published by the author in 1967), p. 17. 

17. Charles Ryrie, p. 42. 


18. Elsa Raud, Introduction to Prophecy (Findlay, Ohio: Dunham 
Publishing Co., 1960), p. 25. 

19. Charles Feinberg, p. 38. 

20. Ibid. 

21. W. Grahm Scroggie, A Guide to the Gospels (London: Picker- 
ing & Inglis, 1948), p. 156. 

22. Berkeley Mickelsen, Interpreting the Bible . (Grand Rapids: Wm. 
B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1963), 294. 

23. A. H. Strong, p. 138. 

24. Alva J. McClain, Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks (Grand 
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1969), pp. 32-33. 

25. King James Version of the Bible, Luke 24:27. 

26. Ibid, Luke 24:44. 

27. R. B. Girdlestone, The Grammar of Prophecy (Grand Rapids: 
Kregel Publications, 1955), p. 21-22. 

28. The King James Version of the Holy Bible, Luke 1:30-33. 

29. Feinberg, p. 39. 



A certain man lay on the operating table waiting for his anesthesia, 
and behold, he was greatly troubled, for he overheard his surgeon talk- 
ing to a nurse in the next room saying, "I wish I had finished medical 
school, but after four years of college and one semester of medical 
school I was tired of studying and just couldn't see going three more 
years to finish. Besides, you know, it seems like the fellows who go 
on just 'dry up. 1 They don't have the same zeal and personal concern 
if they learn too much. I've seen it over and over again; a young fellow 
that really wants to help people goes to medical school and by the time 
he is finished he is ruined. " 

Now it came to pass that the patient could not believe his ears. 
Nevertheless, the surgeon continued to speak in like manner saying, 
"Another thing I could not see was why I had to learn to read all that 
Latin. After all I talk to my patients in English; why should I learn 
Latin just to write prescriptions and understand pharmacology? I can 
always go to Wuest's Word Studies in Pharmaceutics . I took Latin, but 
it took me too. Why, I have already forgotten more Latin than I ever 

"It seemed foolish to me to spend all that time learning medicine 
in medical school. Why should I take four years of Systematic Medicine 
and three semesters of Surgical Exegesis? When I have a medical pro- 
blem, which is quite frequently, I just go to the commentators. J. Sidlow 
Baxter's Explore the Medical Field almost always has the answers I need. 
If that doesn't, then Halley's Medical Handbook does. 

Weston Fields holds the B. A. degree from Faith Baptist Bible College , 
Ankeny, Iowa, and is presently pursuing the Master of Divinity degree 
at Grace Theological Seminary. 



Since Moody Managed 

"I know four years is not a very long time, but when I graduated 
from college the world needed heart surgeons so badly, and so many 
people were dying every day that I just had to get out into the work. 
After all, a call to be a doctor is all you need and the rest will fall into 
line. I knew that many died, and many were in poor condition because 
of the poor surgical techniques of their surgeons (which is usually a re- 
flection of their schooling), but I felt that I would be an exception to the 
case and my patients would get the best of care in spite of my training! 
Sometimes it is rather difficult since I just had one course in surgery, 
but I thought that if men like D. L. Moody could be such great surgeons 
without much education, so could I. " 

By now the patient upon the operating table feared greatly and his 
countenance was fallen, for he thought within himself, "If this man 
knoweth not medicine, perchance I will die under his knife. " And lie 
made ready to flee. But before he could leave, behold, the same sur- 
geon again spoke saying, "Well, this morning we will be operating on 
the right ventricle. I better look in one of my books to see just which 
part that is. I always seem to forget where it is. 

"Let's see, I think I could find something on that in A. T. Rob- 
ertson's A Manual of Modern Medicine . No, I guess that will not do any 
good. It is the best book I have on heart operations, but there is so 
much Latin in it I cannot understand it. I guess I had better look it up 
in Ironside's Medicine Simplified. There is not too much there, but that 
is about the best I can get. Of course there are very small discussions 
in Hyle's Medicine As I See It , and Pink's Gleanings From Medicine . 

"I wish I would have listened more to the two lectures I heard on 
the heart in pre-med. classes, but I was working 40 hours a week and it 
was so hard to stay awake after working all night. However, I am glad 
I worked. My wife and I never had to do without anything while I was 
in school. 

"Well, I think I know where the right ventricle is now. I have 
heard that in medical school they try to get you to do what they call 
'exegetical surgery' --to do everything according to a diagram, to have 
an outline and all- -but I go more for 'topical' and 'devotional' surgery 
myself. I just like to read what I can from the accounts of other men's 
operations and then go to the operating room and 'let the spirit lead. ' 

"I've noticed too, that those more conventional medical school 
graduates don't get as many patients as I do. Of course my results are 
not as lasting, but I contend that numbers ought to count for something. 


If I don't have the best post-operative record, I still have one of the 
highest in numbers of operations. 

"It was certainly a step forward when the state repealed the law 
requiring a medical school degree and a passing grade on the state exams 
for a license. All those educated doctors were just leading us downhill. 
Can you believe that some of them actually did not believe that warts 
are caused by frogs! It is true that some of the best books, I have 
were written by men with a good education, but I certainly am glad that 
I_got out of that medical school. I heard a professor say one day that 
the King James translation of the Medical Encyclopedia has several errors 
in it. Well, I told him that if the King James was good enough for Hip- 
pocrates, it was good enough for me. 

Visiting Comes First 

"I've had so many other things to do this week, that I just have 
not had much time to study for this operation. For one thing, I've had 
so much visiting to do. Visiting, you know, is what I do best. I visited 
over 50 patients yesterday alone. Well, nurse, I guess we better go in. " 

But behold, when this vile surgeon and his nurse came into the 
room, the operating table was bare, for the patient had been filled with 
fear, and had fled. They sought the man, therefore, and when they had 
found him they rebuked him saying. "Why didst thou flee from our pre- 
sence?" And the man answered, saying, "When I did hear what kind of 
preparation for thy work thou hadst, and how thou dost ridicule the med- 
ical school, I verily lost my confidence in thee. I will never return to 
thy operating table again. " 

Now the interpretation of the parable is on this wise: the medical 
school is the seminary, the surgeon is the preacher, the operation is his 
preaching, the operating table is the pew, the Latin is Greek and Hebrew, 
the surgical procedure is homiletics, and the patient is the layman. And 
many are just about ready to get up and leave. 



(Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1969, pp. 1325, 

The author of this massive work is currently Professor of Old 
Testament at Wycliffe College, University of Toronto. Dr. R. K. Har- 
rison has earned B. D. , M. Th. , and Ph.D. degrees from the University 
of London and has written several other books. 

The initial section of the book of nearly 500 pages deals with a 
number of important areas of Old Testament study: The development 
of O. T. studies, O.T. archaeology, ancient Near Eastern chronology, 
the text and canon of the O. T. , O.T. history, O.T. religion, and O.T. 
theology. Each of these Dr. Harrison surveyed in a critical manner 
with the views of the leading scholars analyzed and the major literature 
reviewed. These are followed by 700 pages of introductory material 
about each O. T. book. The last 200 pages contain an introduction to 
the Apocrypha at the request of the publisher. 

Dr. R. A. Harrison's position is conservative in emphasis and 
very similar to that of K. A. Kitchen. As a Christian scholar he insists 
that the Bible should be understood in the context of ancient Near Eastern 
history, sociology, and literature. He believes that scholars should be 
willing to follow the facts wherever they lead. Because of this principle 
Dr. Harrison is highly critical of the evolutionary presupposition of mod- 
ern higher criticism which is accepted uncritically by large numbers of 
scholars. However, he accepts late dates for the Exodus and Conquest 
and, therefore, for the Patriarchs. He believes that the dates in Judges 
and I Kings 6 are schematic and not understood properly by the Western 
mind set. He understands the flood of Noah as one of the many local 
floods of antiquity. So Dr. Harrison's views are not an uncritical accept- 
ance of the "conservative line. " 

The reviewer appreciated Dr. Harrison's appraisal of the develop- 
ment and present state of affairs in O. T. scholarship. He indicated that 
the initiative now appears to be with the American scholars, especially 
with the followers of William F. Albright and Cyrus H. Gordon. He 
believes that their methodology has helped to direct the attention of O. T . 



students from the a priori speculations of Wellhausensim to the archaeo- 
logical and literary facts of the ancient Near East. 

One has to say that Introduction to the Old Testament by R. K. 
Harrison is by far the most comprehensive and up-to-date, conservative- 
oriented O. T. introduction on the market today. It outshines all others 
in this category. It is a well written and stimulating book. It has ex- 
tensive footnotes and bibliographic helps. It is well worth its price. 
This volume will be used with great profit by serious pastors and semi- 
narians, if the size of the book does not scare them away. 

Dwight E. Acomb 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 

LAST THINGS. H. Leo Eddleman, editor. Zondervan Publishing 

House, Grand Rapids, 1969. $3.95. 160 pp. 

This book is essentially a symposium of prophetic messages from 
the pen of twelve leaders in the Christian faith, predominantly from the 
Southern Baptist Fellowship. It was compiled by Dr. H. Leo Eddleman, 
who at the time was President of the New Orleans Baptist Theological 
Seminary. There is a foreword by Dr. Robert G. Lee, Pastor Emeritus 
of the Bellevue Baptist Church of Memphis, Tennessee. Within the .area 
of conservative Christianity, the names of Dr. Billy Graham, Dr. Bern- 
ard Ramm, and General William K. Harrison are most widely known. 

These messages have one common element running through them, 
namely, that the Bible teaches there will be an end to this present order 
of things which will be effected at the Second Coming of Christ. But 
within this common element interpretation is widespread, including views 
from the literal to the symbolical. 

In the various messages, eschatology is discussed in relation to 
history, nature, and the spiritual. In the area of history, last things 
are set forth as its climax with a philosophy covering the entire area 
of reality with special relation to the Jews. In the area of nature, es- 
chatology is discussed in relation to astro-physics, chemistry, and as- 
tronomy. In the area of the spiritual, last things are held forth as a 
hope for the believer and the grand culmination in the Kingdom of God. 

Inasmuch as some of the views expressed are vague, and in 
some cases even border on the liberal, it would be well for the reader 
to check carefully the Biblical context in which the passages discussed 
appear. For those who desire to pursue this study further, some of 
the messages append a bibliography. 

Herman A. Hoyt 
Grace Theological Seminary 



Schaeffer. Inter- Varsity Press, Downer's Grove, Illinois, 1971. 105 
pp. (paperback). 

Those who would seek to understand the precarious situation con- 
fronting the visible church today will welcome this little book from the 
pen of a keen observer of the church in the world. 

Schaeffer discusses theological liberalism with great clarity. He 
has some sound advice for conservatives when he emphasizes that "we 
must practice an observable and real oneness . . . . " His appendix on 
absolute limits in Christian doctrine is very practical, embodying some 
solid, devotional, heart-searching thoughts. Seminarians, pastors and 
laymen will all welcome this addition to Schaeffer 1 s influential works. 

James R. Battenfield 
Grace Theological Seminary 


Mikolaski, editor. Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Com- 
pany, 1969. 264 pp. $6.95. 

Dr. Mikolaski, former professor of theology at the New Orleans 
Baptist Seminary, has carefully selected and edited sections from the 
writings of Peter Taylor Forsyth, the British Free Church theologian 
who lived 1848-1921. Forsyth was educated at the University of Aber- 
deen, the University of Gottingen (Germany), and New College, Ham- 
stead (London), He is important as a theologian because of the impact 
of his thinking on Emil Brunner, the neo-orthodox writer, when Brunner 
was in England during 1913-14. 

A number of good things can be said about Forsyth's views. For 
one thing, he is careful to show the importance of what one believes. 
He states, "It is impossible there to separate religion from theology, 
man from God's purpose, faith from grace. It can only be attempted at 
the cost of one of them. The object of Christian faith is a theological 
God, or else He is not Holy Love. It is impossible to separate the 
questions, "Whom do you trust?" and "What do you believe about Him?"" 
(P. 19). 

However, this reviewer feels that for the general reader or even 
the average pastor, this book cannot be recommended. First of all, the 
price is far too high. Seven dollars for 264 pages is a very high price 
to pay for any book. It is this reviewer's guess that the publisher re- 
alized that the book would not sell widely and so printed a limited edition, 
thus requiring a higher selling price. At any rate, it does not seem 
that the material merits the price. 


Furthermore, not only is the price high, but Forsyth rejects 
certain fundamental teachings of God's Word. He repudiates the ver- 
bal inspiration of Scripture and accepts "an inspiration of men and souls" 
(p. 39). He states, "I do not believe in verbal inspiration. I am with 
the critics, in principle. " (p. 38). 

Not only does Forsyth reject the verbal inspiration of Scripture 
but he seems to consider the physical resurrection of Christ relatively 
unimportant. He says, "It is not the crucifixion that matters but the 
Cross. So it is not the reanimation but resurrection. " (p. 41). The 
Bible -believing Christian would ask how there could be a "resurrection" 
apart from the reanimation of Christ's physical body! 

Finally, Forsyth, while rejecting much of the philosophy connected 
with the theory of evolution, makes it clear that he does not reject the 
idea itself (pp. 91-95). Yet, it is this reviewer's firm conviction that 
anyone who wishes to submit to the authority of God's Word must reject 
the theory of evolution since this idea contradicts the clear Biblical 
teaching of divine creation. 

Thus, for a Bible -believing theologian who is well grounded in 
God's Word, this book may prove to be beneficial, but this reviewer 
does not feel he can honestly recommend it as a tool for better under- 
standing God's Word. 

Myron J. Houghton 
Baptist Bible College, Denver 


apolis, Bethany Fellowship, Inc., 1966. 192 pp. $1.50, paper. 

Bethany Fellowship, the organization which published this book, 
has been known as Arminian and somewhat Pentecostal in its viewpoint . 
This book, however, though published by their press, is actually copy- 
righted by Zondervan Publishing House and this reviewer, in skimming 
the contents of the book, did not discover anything in the book which 
would be contrary to the basic theological position of Grace Seminary. 

Basically, this reviewer is favorable in his estimation of this 
book. It is an attempt to trace the concept of the cross throughout 
the Bible in 51 short chapters. In these chapters, the author does not 
try to give a detailed exegetical analysis of the text, though he does 
discuss in some detail the theme of the Chapter and when appropriate, 
he brings out the significance of the Greek text (e.g. the I AM's of 
Jesus, p. 87). The author's approach is basically devotional without 
sacrificing content, making this book a valuable tool for a busy pastor. 


While this reviewer does not endorse every statement in the 
book, he feels it can make an excellent contribution to the spiritual 
life of a believer. 

Myron J. Houghton 
Baptist Bible College, Denver 


Brown. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1969. $2.45 paper- 
back, 282 pp. 

The historic battles between Fundamentalism and Liberalism are 
past, but the residue left in its wake has arisen to becloud Protestant- 
ism today, so that both arms of the church are relatively impotent to 
the task. To this point the author is speaking in his highly analytical 
evaluation of the problems that face the church today. Holder of four 
degrees (Ph.D. in History) from Harvard University and school of The- 
ology, author Brown is nevertheless a thorough-going conservative and 
Biblically orientated scholar. He believes in the verbal inspiration of 
Scripture, and displays an irritation to rational theology. 

In his critique of the existing establishment of the church, he 
spares no one, and no theological view. His adherence to the Word of 
God, as basic to any theological or philosophical point of view is very 
refreshing. Brown finds fault with the liberals for their lack of be- 
lieving and their misuse of the Bible as God's Word. He scores them 
on their unwillingness to accept the evangelicals as their equals, or 
even accede to the fact that they do have scholars of note. He also 
criticizes them on their hypocrisy of stating their broadmindedness and 
yet in actuality being quite narrow-minded. He cites a number of illus- 
trations to prove his point relative to his student days at Harvard. On 
the other hand he does not spare the evangelicals, but notes the criti- 
cism, bickering, lack of love, etc., that seemingly is characteristic of 
those who hold to the Bible and preach the word of love, yet do not live 
it, much less utilize it in social relations. 

The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Dr. Francis 
Schaeffer. In reading Brown, one can easily see the style of argumen- 
tation reflects much of Schaeffer. Not everyone who reads this book 
will agree on its premises or conclusions, for Brown smashes many a 
sacred cow, but all will be stimulated and challenged. The reviewer 
felt that Chapters 7, 10, 11 were exceptionally well written and inform- 
ative. For one who wishes to understand the broad picture of contem- 
porary theology, as seen in the recent historical context, this is an 


excellent book. It is more than just a recounting of the problems of the 
past and the troubles of today; it is a philosophical interpretation of the 
underlying problems of Christianity today, with a Biblical accounting of 
what we as Christians can and should do to rectify the situation. 

John H. Stoll 
Grace College 

JESUS CHRIST OUR LORV. By John F. Walvoord. Moody Press, 

Chicago, 1969. $4.95, 318 pp. 

The works of Dr. John Walvoord are always worthy of the Bible 
student's time. This extensive study on Christology is no exception. 
In chronological fashion, the author covers the field from Christ in eter- 
nity past to the future work of our Lord. He makes a thorough study 
of the doctrines of atonement, redemption, propitiation and reconcilia- 
tion. His study on contemporary Christology is enlightening and the 
portion on O.T. typology is refreshing. 

Dr. Walvoord has an extensive bibliography, subject index and 
Scripture index. His text is biblically based and has a great deal of 
Scripture in the presentation. The selected quotes not only substantiate 
his position but also impart valuable information. Rather than the usual 
weighty footnotes of a theological book, he places the pertinent informa- 
tion in the text. 

Readers who have followed Dr. Walvoord's articles in Bibliotheca 
Sacra since 1960 will recognize the information in chapters 6-12 of this 
book. There are some abridgements and additions, but the basic text 
remains. This fact is not noted on the flyleaf or in his book. 

Dr. Walvoord is President of Dallas Theological Seminary and 
Editor of Bibliotheca Sacra. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

THE ANNOTATED BIBLE. By Arno C. Gaebelein. Moody Press and 

Loizeaux Brothers, Chicago, reprinted 1970. $24.95. 4 vols. 

No matter how diligently the student studies, Gaebelein always 
seems to have a worthy comment to add! Gaebelein was a master of 
analysis and annotation. 

Gaebelein's notes are synthetic in style and give the fundamental, 
dispensational approach to the Scriptures. His work is not a verse by 
verse commentary. In some places his sections are very brief, e.g. 


Psalms chapters 120-134 are covered in one and a half pages. However, 
Gaebelein generally could say more in one page than many commentators 
could express in twenty pages. He includes an introduction, outline and 
annotation for each Bible book. He added a valuable appendix to several 
of the books. 

Originally published in nine volumes, this work is now in four 
handy books. The type is clear and the binding is attractive. We should 
thank the publishers for this valuable reprint. 

A few pages of the reviewer's volume three are improperly cut. 
In volume four, page 274, the Revelation section title reads Chapter 
XXI. 19 instead of Chapter XXI. 1-8. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

THE LEhlTEM SOURCEBOOK. By Herbert Lockyer. Zondervan Pub- 

lishing House, Grand Rapids, 1968, $4.95, 192 pp. 

Any help the busy pastor, teacher or layman can get around Easter 
time is welcomed. This book supplies material beyond "Lent" or the 
Passion Week, as the subtitle states "including Thoughts and Messages 
for Easter Day. " Author Herbert Lockyer is a former pastor, Bible 
conference speaker and writer. 

To many Christians, Lent is a liturgical, traditional superficial 
program. The term has a bad connotation because Lent recalls a Mardi 
Gras type of experience for a corrupt, untaught Christendom. But the 
believers need not surrender the pre- Easter season to the "religious" 
world. Dr. Lockyer tries to recapture some of the lost territory for 
the Church. 

Among the interesting features of this book are the origin and 
observance of Lent, the history of fasting and expressive illustrations, 
Dr. Lockyer suggests several programs, prayers and poems for timely 
use. He notes sermon outlines, topics, texts and even appropriate music 
for the season. He includes an extensive bibliography and a helpful 
index. His sections on sermonic aids (p. 9 If) and illustrations (p. 138f) 
are among the finest portions of this work. 

Some readers will object to his "Steps to the Cross" usable as 
"Stations of the Cross" (p. 64). Section subtitles are unlettered and 
cast in lighter print than units contained in the subsections. Therefore, 
subsections appear as part of the previous units. Also objectionable is 
the idea of a season to reflect on sins in place of daily judgment of 


wrong, Dr. Lockyer expresses some unique ideas such as Mary is 
"Queen of Martyrs" (p. 83); Mary helped bury Jesus; Barabbas was at 
the cross of Christ (p. 105). Occasionally, the author mentions ideas 
with a deep hidden meaning, e.g. Christians should pray for strength 
to suffer in unison with Christ (p. 76). 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

THE BOOKS Of RUTH kW ESTHER. By. C. Reuben Anderson. Baker 

Book House, Grand Rapids, 1970. $1.95, 93 pp. (paperback) 

The problem with treating two Bible books in one commentary is 
the author often treats one book better than the other. And so is the 
case in this work. His Ruth is little more than obvious; Esther is in- 
teresting and informative. Perhaps a more devotional outlook on the 
book of Ruth would have balanced out the writings. Approximately the 
same number of pages (40) is given to each book. 

C. Reuben Anderson, Associate Minister of the First Covenant 
Church of Minneapolis, gives the story or synopsis of each book. He 
follows his alliterated outlines, but not in a wearisome fashion. He 
includes some excellent illustrations in the exposition and twenty-five 
author-books in the bibliography. His comments on the levirate marri- 
age of Ruth and the disposal of Queen Vashti are profitable. Anderson 
suggests that the hard rule on permissive entrance before the Persian 
King reduced the possibilities of assassination. He pictures Esther as 
a type of Israel's Messiah, ready to die for God's people. The name 
of God is not mentioned in the Book of Esther out of respect and rev- 
erence for that divine name. 

In addition to the weak point in this particular book of the Shield 
Bible Study Series mentioned above, the author fails to identify several 
quotes (e.g., pages 28, 30, 59, 63, 72, 78, 84). Sometimes the author 
gives the verse reference, other times he neglects it (p. 84). He dog- 
matically sends Elimelech in the will of God to Moab and then slides 
back to the providential or permissive will of God (pp. 18, 19). He is 
very silent on mixed marriages, the possibility of chastening in the 
deaths of Elimelech, Mahlon and Chilion and the return of Orpah to her 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 



By Geoffrey B. Wilson, The Banner of Truth Trust, London, 1971. 

$1.25. 192 pp. (paper). 

This little volume by the minister of Birkby Baptist Church, 
Huddersfield, England, is exactly what its sub-title promises. Very 

little in it is new. Its format is a verse-by-verse commentary on the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, heavily laced with quotations from John Owen, 
George Smeaton, John Calvin, and the more recent F. F. Bruce and 
John Murray. 

In the difficult chapter 6, verses 1-3 are viewed as descriptive 
of elements in Judaism, and verses 4-6 are explained as temporary 
faith, not true regeneration. 

As a brief review of Reformed interpretation of Hebrews, this 
book provides an introductory sampling. Its brevity limits its useful- 
ness, however, to only the most casual readers. 

Homer A. Kent, Jr. 
Grace Theological Seminary 

WHV MOT CREATION? By Walter E. Lammerts, editor, 

(Nutley, N. J. : Presbyterian & Reformed Pub. Co. , 1970). 388 pages. 
$7. 50. 

This is the first volume of a series of reprints of outstanding 
articles supporting the Genesis account of creation and the Flood from 
a scientific standpoint* The articles appeared orginally in various issues 
of the Creation Research Society Quarterly from 1964 to 1968, under the 
editorship of Walter E. Lammerts, Ph.D., an internationally known ex- 
pert on genetics and rose-breeding. The twenty-four articles chosen to 
appear in this volume cover the entire gamut of natural science from 
astronomy to biochemistry, with an introductory chapter on "Philosoph- 
ical and Theological Background: and a concluding one on "Social Con- 
siderations. " 

The price of this volume should not give pause to pastors and 
Christian workers who have been looking for solid, scientifically com- 
petent, and Biblically trustworthy material to put into the hands of young 
people who are pressured from every direction by the evolutionary phi- 
losophy of origins. The volume is a goldmine for all creationists. 

John C. Whitcomb, Jr. 
Grace Theological Seminary 


THE WRATH OF HEAVEN. By Calvin R. Schoonhoven, Grand Rapids, 

Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1968, $2.45. 

Schoonhoven does an admirable job showing that, contrary to pop- 
ular opinion, the present heaven is not perfect. Although it is God's 
special dwelling place and offers some blessings that the earth does not, 
heaven has evil, divine wrath, personal incompleteness and the prospect 
of future destruction present within it. 

The work contrasts the Greek-Hellenistic and Hebrew-Christian 
concepts of the structure of the ages and of the heaven-earth relation- 
ship exceptionally well. It gives evidence of extensive research into the 
writings of ancient Greek philosphers, post-exilic rabbis and contempor- 
ary German, French and English exegetes. 

In spite of these positive features the book presents some ques- 
tionable ideas. The author believes that, in addition to those angels who 
serve God and are confirmed in goodness and those who serve Satan and 
are confirmed in evil, there is a third class of angels. Basically they 
are on God's side but are imperfect, making errors and sinning while 
serving Him. They enjoy administering God's wrath so much that they 
are in danger of going beyond what He intended. They even menace the 
redemptive purpose of God. Paul expressed distaste for them. 

Schoonhoven states that Christ provided redemption and reconcili- 
ation for this special class of angels through His blood. He does not 
try, however, to reconcile this view with Hebrews 2:9, 14-17 which states 
that Christ does not help angels and that He tasted death for man having 
taken upon himself the flesh and blood of man. 

The author believes Satan was cast from God's heaven forever 
when Christ died and ascended and that Revelation 12:7-9 was fulfilled 
then. But, if Satan was evicted then, why is Christ an advocate in hea- 
ven (I John 2)? If Revelation 12 was fulfilled then, why does Schoonhoven 
have Satan's angels in heaven yet? 

Schoonhoven is a post-tribulationist and perhaps an amillennialist. 

Renald E. Showers 
Philadelphia College of the Bible 


1,000 BIBLE STUDY OUTLINES. By F. E. Marsh. Kregel Publications, 

Grand Rapids, 1970. 473 pp. $5.95. 

Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 1970 (reprinted). 699 pp. 

A SURVEY OF ISRAEL'S HISTORY. By Leon Wood. Zondervan Publish- 
ing House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 444 pp. $7.50. 
GOD IN THE DOCK. By C. S. Lewis. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 

Co., Grand Rapids, 1970. 346 pp. $6.95. 

I-III). By W. A. Criswell. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand 

Rapids, 1970. 147 pp. $3.50. 

Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 79 pp. $1.50, paper. 

L. Doan. G/L Publications, Glendale, 1970. 104 pp. $1.25, 

ONE DIVINE MOMENT. Ed. By Robert E. Coleman. Fleming H. Revell 

Co., Old Tappan, N.J. , 1970. 123 pp. $1.95, paper. 
DIVINE HEALING. By R. A. Torrey, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 

reprinted from the original printing made in 1924 by Fleming H. 

Revell Company. 54 pp. $1.00. 

and Harold Schultz Slusher. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand 

Rapids, 1970. 548 pp. 
THE MISSIONARY MANIFESTO. By G. Campbell Morgan. Baker Book 

House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 157 pp. $2.45. 
158 THINGS TO MAKE. By Margaret M. Self. G/L Publications, Glen- 
dale, Calif., 1970. H2pp. $1.25. 
JERUSALEM (A Study in Urban Geography). By I. W. J. Hopkins. Baker 

Book House, Grand Rapids, 1970, 160 pp. $2.95. 

Schaeffer. Inter- Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 111. , 1970. 153 

pp. $3o95. 
gomery. Bethany Fellowship, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1970. 

528 pp. $7.95. 



PROFITING FROM THE WORD. By A. W. Pink. The Banner of Truth 

Trust, London, 1970. 124 pp. $1.00. 
HEBREWS. By Geoffrey B. Wilson. The Banner of Truth Trust, London, 

1970. 192 pp. $1.25. 

Francis Nigel Lee. The Craig Press, Nutley, N.J. , 1969. 249 

pp. $4.50; 
THE GREAT DEBATE TODAY. By Cornelius Van Til. Presbyterian 

and Reformed Publishing Co. , Nutley, N.J. , 1971. 239 pp. $4.50 

By E. L. Hebden Taylor. The Craig Press, Nutley, N. J., 1970. 

85 pp. $1.50. 
POLITICS OF GUILT AND PITY. By Rousas J. Rushdoony. The Craig 

Press, Nutley, N. J., 1970. 371 pp. $6.50. 
THE GARDEN AND THE GRAVEYARD. By George M. Bass. Augsburg 

Publishing House, Minneapolis, 1971. 96 pp. $2.50, paper. 

Schlink. Bethany Fellowship, Inc., Minneapolis, 1970. $.50, 

paper. 48 pp. 

Augusburg Publishing House, Minneapolis, 1971. 121 pp. $2.75, 

THE DRUG BUG. By Allen Palmquist and Frank Reynolds. Bethany Fel- 
lowship, Inc., Minneapolis, 1970. 70 pp. $.75, paper. 
RULED BY THE SPIRIT. By Basilea Schlink. Bethany Fellowship, Inc., 

Minneapolis, 1969. 132 pp. $1.95, paper. 

Press, Chicago, 1971. 128 pp. $1.95, paper. 

Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 124 pp. $.9 5, paper. 

voord. Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 317 pp. $6.95. 

Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 79 pp. $1.95, paper. 
WHAT IS HUMAN? By T. M. Kitwood. Inter- Varsity Press, Downers 

Grove, 111., 1970. 142 pp. $1.50, paper. 

maaker. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 111. , 1970. 256 

pp. $3.95, paper. 
TRADITION: OLD AND NEW. By F. F. Bruce. Zondervan Publishing 

House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 184 pp. $3.95, paper. 
WORD PICTURES FROM THE BIBLE. By E. M. Blaiklock. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1969. 95 pp. $2.95. 
dervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 222 pp. $1. 95, 



Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , Grand Rapids, 1971. 397 pp. 
$4.95, paper. 

TICAL WRITINGS. By Harry Escott. Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub- 
lishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1971. 128 pp. $1.95, paper. 

WHY NOT CREATION? Edited by Walter E. Lammerts. Presbyterian 
and Reformed Publishing Company, Nutley, N. J. , 1971. 388 pp. 
$7. 50. 

THE CONTROL OF HUMAN LIFE. By Philip Edgcumbe Hughes. 
byterian and Reformed Publishing Company, Nutley, N. J. , 1971. 
55 pp. $1.00., paper. 

Knight, III. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, Nut- 
ley, N. J., 1971. 162 pp. $3.50, paper. 

THY KINGDOM COME. By Rousas John Rushdoony. Presbyterian and 
Reformed Publishing Company, Nutley, N. J., 1971. 256 pp. 

Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, Missouri, 1971. 99 pp. 
$2.50, paper. 

DESIGN FOR DISCIPLESHIP. By J. Dwight Pentecost. Zondervan Pub- 
lishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 130 pp. $3.95. 

SCIENCE RETURNS TO GOD. By James H. Jauncey. Zondervan Pub- 
lishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 130 pp. $3.95. 

WITNESS IS WITHNESS. By David Augsburger. Moody Press, Chicago 
1971. 127 pp. $.50, paper. 

Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. $.50, paper. 

Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1961. $1.95, paper. 

EXPOSITORY OUTLINES FROM 1 - II Corinthians. By Kingsley G. 
Rendell. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1969. 157 pp. 
157 pp. $1.95, paper. 

VOICE OF THE TURTLEDOVE. By Charles R. Hembree. Baker Book 
House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 140 pp. $2.95. 

SCIENCE AND THE BIBLE. By Bolton Davidheiser. Baker Book House 
Grand Rapids, 1971. 121 pp. $3.95. 

THE FUTURE LIFE. By Rene Pache. Moody Press, Chicago, 1962. 
376 pp. $2.95, paper. 

THE BEST OF D. L. MOODY. Edited by Wilbur M. Smith. Moody 
Press, Chicago, 1971. 223 pp. $4.95. 

H. Revell Co., Old Tappan, N. J., 1971. 173 pp. $3.95. 

A DISPENSATIONAL THEOLOGY. By Charles F. Baker. Grace Bible 
College Publications, Wyoming, Mich., 1971. 688 pp. $9.95. 



CHRISTIANS. By Ralph O. Burns. Regular Baptist Press, Des 

Plaines, 111., 1971. 30 pp. $.60, paper. 
THE CHRISTIAN WAY OF DEATH. By Gladys Hunt. Zondervan Pub- 
lishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 117 pp. $3.50. 
REVELATION. By Donald Grey Barnhouse. Zondervan Publishing House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 413 pp. 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 313 pp. $6.95. 
THE LISTENER. By H. S. Vigeveno. Regal Books, Gospel LightFub- 

lications, Glendale, Calif., 1971. 153 pp. $.95, paper. 
MEN WHO KNEW CHRIST. By William Sanford Lasor. Regal Books, 

Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, Calif., 1971. 167 pp. $.95, 

TAKE YOUR CHOICE. By Fritz Ridenour. Regal Books, Gospel Light 

Publications, Glendale, Calif., 1971. 186 pp. $.95, paper. 
LAITY MOBILIZED. By Neil Braun. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 224 pp. $3.95, paper. 

Press, Chicago, 1971. 127 pp. $.95, paper. 

Martin, Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 62 pp. $.95, paper. 
PROPHECY AND THE SEVENTIES. Editor, Charles Lee Feinberg. Moody 

Press, Chicago, 1971. 255 pp. $4.95. 
NEO-EVANGELICALISM. By Victor M. Matthews. Regular Baptist Press , 

Des Plaines, 111., 1971. 35 pp. $.95, paper. 
SOLOMON TO THE EXILE. By John C. Whitcomb, Jr. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 182 pp. $2.95 paper, $3.95 cloth. 
12 SERMONS ON DECISION. By Charles H. Spurgeon. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 152 pp. $1.85, paper, 
SPIRITUAL GROWTH. By Arthur W. Pink. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, 1971. 193 pp. $4.95. 
SIGNS OF THE TIMES. By A. Skevington Wood. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1970. 126 pp. $1.95, paper. 
A TREASURY OF DWIGHT L. MOODY. Edited by Ralph G. Turnbull. 

Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 249 pp. $2.95, paper. 
LIVING HYMN STORIES. By Wilbur, Konkel. Bethany Fellowship, Inc., 

Minneapolis, Minn., 1971. 95 pp. $1.00, paper. 
REVIVAL FIRE. By Charles G. Finney. Bethany Fellowship, Inc., 

Minneapolis, Minn., n.d. 96 pp. $.75, paper. 
TO PERISH FOR THEIR SAVrNG. By Helen Manning. Bethany Fellow- 
ship, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1971. 128 pp. $1.95, paper. 
PREPARE TO MEET GOD. By L. R. Scarborough. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 140 pp. $1.95, paper. 
CREATION OR EVOLUTION? By David D. Riagle. Zondervan Publish- 
ing House, Grand Rapids, Revised 1971. 64 pp. $.95, paper. 


MARRIAGE IS FOR ADULTS ONLY. By Lars I. Granberg. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 96 pp. $1.50, paper. 
WHY I AM STILL A CHRISTIAN. Compiled and Edited by E. M. Blaik- 

lock. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 176 pp. 

$1.95, paper. 
ROMANS. By D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones. Zondervan Publishing, Grand 

Rapids, Mich., 1971. 250 pp. $5.95. 
SALVATION. By Charles M. Home. Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 

128 pp. $1.95, paper. 
THE WILDERNESS JOURNEY. By Charles M. Home. Moody Press , 

Chicago, 1971. 128 pp. $1.95, paper. 
TWICE UPON A TIME. By Donald McCall. Moody Press, Chicago, 

1971. 140 pp. $3.95. 

B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Grand Rapids, 1971. 258 pp. $3.95, 

MY WIFE MADE ME A POLYGAMIST. By Walter Trobisch. Inter - 

Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 111., 1971. 43 pp. $.95, paper. 
BETTER IS YOUR LOVE THAN WINE. By Jean Banyolak and Ingrid 

Trobisch. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 111., 1971. 

43 pp. $.95, paper. 
CHRIST THE LIBERATOR. By John R. W. Stott and others. Inter- 
Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 111., 1971. 43 pp $.95, paper. 
MY LOVE AFFAIR WITH CHARLES. By Frances Gardner Hunter. Regal 

Book Division, Gospel Light Publication, Glendale, Calif. , 1971. 

197 pp. $4.95. 
MAN, GOD'S ETERNAL CREATION. By R. Laird Harris, MoodyPress, 

Chicago, 1971. 190 pp. $4.95. 
REACH UP. By Vonda Kay Van Dyke. Fleming H. Revell Co., Old 

Tappan, New Jersey, 1971. 124 pp. $3.95. 

& Wi Jo Kang, Editors. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 181 pp. $4.95 
ONLY SECONDS. By Jack Albinson. Bethany Fellowship, Inc. , 6820 

Auto Club Rd. , Minneapolis, Minn., 55431, 1971. 119 pp. 

SAMUEL MORRIS. By Lindley Baldwin. Dimension Books, Bethany Fel- 
lowship, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1971 (29th printing). 94 pp. 
WHEN CALL CALLS. By Basilea Schlink. Dimension Books,Bethany 

Fellowship, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1970. 158 pp. $1.25. 
LIKE A DOVE DESCENDING. By Ian Macpherson. Bethany Fellowship. 

Inc., 1970. 116 pp. $1.50. 
WHEN HUMAN WISDOM FAILS. By T. Miles Bennett. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 95 pp. $.95. 
HERMENEUTICS. By Bernard L. Ramm and others. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 95 pp. $.95. 


TARBELL'S TEACHER'S GUIDE, edited by Frank S. Mead. Fleming H. 
Revell Co., Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1971. 383 pp. $3.95. 

THE BEATITUDES. By Thomas Watson. Puritan Publications Inc., 
Carlisle, Pa., 1971. 307 pp. $4.50. 

SNAPPY STEEPLE STORIES. Compiled by Oren Arnold. Kregel Pub- 
lications, Grand Rapids, 1970. 80 pp. $1.00. 

THE GOSPEL OF MARK. By Herschel H. Hobbs. Baker Book House, 
Grand Rapids, 1971. 79 pp. $1.95. 

THE BOOK OF HOSEA. By Jack B. Scott. Baker Book House, Grand 
Rapids, 1971. 86 pp. $1.95. 

THE TRAINING OF THE TWELVE. By A. B. Bruce. Kregel Publica- 
tions, Grand Rapids, 1971. 545 pp. $6.95. 

Berry, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 1970. 404 pp. $8.95. 

GOOD-BY MY SON. By Erwin Paul Rudolph. Zondervan Publishing House, 
Grand Rapids, 1971. 159 pp. $3.95. 

A STUDY OF JOB. By H. L. Ellison. Zondervan Publishing House, 
Grand Rapids, 1971. 150 pp. $1.95. 

Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 222 pp. $1.95. 

THE UNTAPPED GENERATION. By David & Don Wilkerson. Zondervan 
Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 256 pp. $1.95. 

Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 130 pp. $1.95. 

ARE WOMEN HUMAN? By Dorothy L. Sayers. Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub- 
lishing Co., 1971, 47 pp. $1.00. 

DISCERN THESE TIMES. By S. I. McMillen, M. D. Fleming H. Revell 
Co., Old Tappan, N. J., 1971, 291 pp. $4.95. 

BIBLE STUDY SOURCE BOOK. By Donald E. Demaray. Zondervan Pub- 
lishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971, 400 pp. $3.95. 

PLAIN TALK ON JOHN. By Manford George Gutzke. Zondervan Publish- 
ing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 212 pp. $1.95. 

THE LATE GREAT PLANET EARTH. By Hal Lindsey and Carole Carlson. 
Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 192 pp. 

dervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 238 pp. $2.95. 

Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 128 pp. $2.95. 

MISSION CONTROL, By John Wesley White. Zondervan Publishing House, 
Grand Rapids, 1971. 184 pp. $1.95. 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 160 pp. $3.95. 

STUDIES IN PROBLEM TEXTS. By J. Sidlow Baxter. Zondervan Pub- 
lishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 192 pp. $1,95. 

MONKEY OFF MY BACK. By Jack Brown. Zondervan Publishing House, 
Grand Rapids, 1971. 150 pp. $1.95. 



Winona Lake, Indiana 


FALL 1972 

Vol. 13 





A publication of Grace Theological Seminary 




ITS DOCTRINE OF GOD R. Laird Harris 3 

The Louis S. Bauman Memorial 
Lectures for 1972 



GRACE JOURNAL is published three times each year (Winter, Spring, Fall) by Grace Theological Seminary, in co- 
operation with the Grace Seminary Alumni Association. 

EDITORIAL POLICY: The editors of GRACE JOURNAL hold the historic Christian faith, and accept without reservation 
the inerrancy of Scripture and the premillennial view of eschatology. A more complete expression of their theological 
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Copyright 1972, by Grace Theological Seminary. All rights reserved. 


Published by 








HOMER A. KENT, JR., Editor 

JOHN C. WHITCOMB, JR., Managing Editor 

S. HERBERT BESS, Book Review Editor 

GRACE JOURNAL is indexed by 

FOR MOSHER LIBRARY (Dallas Theological Seminary) 



Professor of Old Testament 

Covenant Theological Seminary 

A few years ago, there was a man of the East- -the eastern 
United States, that is --named Archibald MacLeish. And he wrote a 
rather famous play called J. O.B. , taking his theme from that ancient 
man from a distant eastern country, Job. The play was in no sense a 
commentary on Job, and it gave a radically different treatment of the 
problems of the relation of God, man and evil. But at least we may say 
that MacLeish's choice of his title underlines the perennial fascination 
of the book of Job, even to those who may not agree with its teaching 
and conclusions. It is in every respect a great book. It deals with 
some of the deepest problems of man and directs us to the existence of 
a sovereign God for their solution. It treats these problems not in a 
doctrinaire fashion, but wrestles with them and gives us answers to pro - 
claim to a troubled age, to a generation that recognizes the antinomies 
of life, but cannot find a meaningful solution for them. We hope in these 
studies to see how the ancient godly philosopher and prophet explores 
deeply the basic questions of life and offers to the man of faith answers 
far wiser than much which passes for wisdom today. But first to turn 
to some technical questions. 

Th e Date of Job 

Probably the most common view of the date of Job in conservative 
circles has been that the book is very old. For example, the Scofield 
Reference Bible points to the patriarchal period. The Jewish tradition 
enshrined in the Talmud (Baba Bathra 14b) says Moses was its author. 
This Jewish tradition is quite late. The Talmud was not codified until 

The material in this article was originally presented at Grace Theological 
Seminary as comprising the Louis S. Bauman Memorial Lectures, February 
8-11, 1972. 


the 5th century A. D. , and our manuscripts of it come from a still later 
period. The tradition may have some value however. It may not be 
that the data on authorship was correctly remembered by the Jews , 
but that they came to the conclusion of early authorship from various 
factors that we too can observe. 

That there was an ancient worthy by the name of Job is sure 
from Ezekiel 14:14, 20, which mentions him along with Noah and Daniel. 
The reference is similar to that in Jeremiah 15:1, which uses Moses and 
Samuel as ancient types of righteousness. It used to be remarked that 
the verses in Ezekiel mean little because Daniel is one of the trio, and 
the book of Daniel is now regularly placed in the second century B. C . 
We are, of course, not willing to concede the late date of Daniel. A 
newly discovered Targum, a Targum of Job, interestingly, argues that 
the Aramaic of Daniel does not reflect the language of the second cen- 
tury B. C. in Palestine as has been so widely believed. It is claimed 
that this Targum of Job was translated about 100 B. C. and shows a later 
stage of Aramaic than Ezra or Daniel. In any case, this passage in 
Ezekiel is no longer held to be against the early date of Job, for the 
reference to Daniel is now differently understood. It is now said that 
the Daniel of Ezekiel refers not to the canonical Daniel, but to the Daniel 
mentioned in the Ugaritic Texts as an ancient wise man, the father of 
the hero, Aqhat. Here again, we may enter a disclaimer. The Daniel 
of Ugarit is quite different from the righteous man of Ezekiel 14. Ac- 
tually Ezekiel does not appeal to these men because they were ancient , 
but because they were righteous. But in any case, the verses do assure 
us that Ezekiel, about 600 B. C. , did know the story of Job. 

The only other external evidence for the antiquity of the book 
would come from cross references and allusions in other Biblical books. 
Proverbs 3:11 is one such passage, with the wording quite similar to 
Job 5:27. Job says, "Despise not the chastening of the Almighty. " 
Proverbs says, "My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord." The 
wording of the two passages is identical in Hebrew, except that Job has 
the divine name, Shaddai, which it very frequently uses, and Proverbs 
uses the more common name, the Tetragram. It also adds a charac- 
teristic proverbial touch, "my son. " The force of such a parallel is 
debatable, because it is hard to know which book quoted the other, 
granted that there was some verbal dependence. The whole chapter is 
an encomium of wisdom in terms of a search for wisdom in places which 
only God knows. The conclusion is that "the fear of the Lord that is 
wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding. " This conclusion is 
quite like Proverbs 1:7; 9:10; 15:33 and Psalm 111:10. Again the question 
is, did Job build a beautiful poem on the subject of wisdom as defined in 
Proverbs and use it in his context? Or did Proverbs and the Psalms take 
a theme already developed in Job and allude to it in various verses? We 


cannot be sure, but it does seem a little more probable that Proverbs 
and Psalms did the borrowing. The matter is somewhat complicated by 
the problem of the position of Job 28 itself. Critical commentators feel 
that the whole chapter is intrusive. It is indeed distinctive, but there 
is no need to object to such a poem being included in Job's asseveration 
of his righteousness. Actually the chapter is an important part of Job's 
argument. It builds up to a great climax in which Job establishes his 
ethical and moral standard. 

Another parallel is between Job 71:17 and Psalm 8:5. Job says, 
"What is man that you magnify him?" The Psalm says, "What is man 
that you remember him?" The word "man" in each case is the less 
used word for man, •* nosh, making literary interdependence more likely. 
Another parallel is Job 2:13 and Proverbs 10:28. Job says, "The hope 
of a profane man shall perish. " Proverbs puts it. "The hope of a 
wicked man shall perish. " The two statements differ only in the words 
for a wicked man. The word "profane" is found several times in Job. 
It would be more natural for the somewhat unusual word to be found 
in the original passage. Another parallel is Isaiah 19:5 with Job 14:11. 
The last half of each verse "the waters shall fail from the sea" is iden- 
tical. The verses are in different contexts, however, and it would be 
hard to prove which is copied from the other. Another passage showing 
a literary parallel is the section in which Job curses his day (Job 3:1-11). 
Jeremiah does likewise (Jer. 20:14-18). Driver, referring to this pas- 
sage, quotes Dillmann as arguing that Job is earlier because more power- 
ful and vivid. Driver questions this conclusion because, he says, Job 
was written by a greater poet in any case ( Introduction to the Literature 
of the O.T. , New York: Doubleday, ed. of 1896, p. 408). One could 
now support Dillman's argument by reference to allusions in this pas- 
sage to Ugaritic motifs (Vs. 8 refers to Leviathan) of which we shall 
speak again later. Also, there is a parallel between Job 18:5, 6 and 
Proverbs 13:9. Driver believes that Bildad borrowed from Proverbs. 
But Bildad has a four line poem against the "lamp of the wicked. " Pro- 
verbs uses only this one phrase as a contrast to the bright shining of 
the lamp of the righteous. It is just as likely, perhaps more so, that 
Proverbs did the borrowing. 

There are also interesting verbal parallels of Job 27:1 and 29:1 
with Numbers 23:7, 18; 24:3, 15. Four times the book of Numbers says 
Balaam "took up his parable and said. " It is probable that the verbal 
parallel is only due to a common linguistic usage. But it is interesting 
to date that the parallel is with Balaam, another man of the eastern area, 
and one living in Moses' day. To sum up, there are a few interesting 
verbal parallels with Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, and the Balaam oracles. 
These are not conclusive, but incline somewhat toward a pre-monarchy 
date for the writing. 


There is also considerable internal evidence for a pre-monarchy 
date, or even for Mosaic times. This evidence is of two kinds --com- 
parison of the book with Biblical data and comparison with the general 
archaeological picture of early times. On the first point, it has been 
widely noticed that the picture of Job's sacrificial ritual is like that of 
the patriarchs and bears no relation to the tabernacle ritual of Moses 1 
day and later. Job served as a priest in his own house, as Abraham 
did, and as Melchizedek seems to have done. Of course, this may have 
been due to Job's locale as a righteous man off in the East believing 
in Israel's God, but not allied with Israel. But it is easier to say that 
the scene is patriarchal. At the same time, the book mentions names 
of the patriarchal circle. The land of Uz was presumably named after 
Abraham's nephew (Gen. 22:21) and Elihu the Buz ite belonged to the clan 
headed by the brother of Uz. Bildad the Shuhite was a descendant of 
Abraham himself, by Keturah (Gen. 25:2). Presumably, the reason this 
record got into the circle of Israel's scriptures is that Job and his people 
were distant cousins of the Israelites. We may even get a glimpse here 
of those other godly men of Abraham's day who like Melchizedek, wor- 
shipped the true God though they were not in Abraham's immediate family. 
When God called Abraham to found the theocracy, there were others 
around who shared Abraham's faith. 

There is another ancient touch, hard to evaluate. It is the use 
of the divine name Shaddai. This and Elo^h are the characteristic names 
for God in Job and are used sparingly elsewhere. Shaddai occurs some 
thirty times in Job, six times in the Pentateuch and seldom elsewhere. 
The matter is complicated first because we are not sure of its origin, 
and secondly, critics have argued that the P document teaches in Exodus 
6:3 that all instances of "Jehovah" before Moses are anachronistic and 
are therefore useful for separating out Pentateuchal documents. 

Personally, I am of the opinion that the word is borrowed from 
the Akkadian or Amorite and was indeed used early in Israel's history. 
I feel the derivation from the word for "breast" is fanciful and does not 
explain what seems to be an archaic Lemedh-He ending. The hard "d" 
need not be a doubling, but a preservation of the old Akkadian pronun- 
ciation which had no soft "d. " And the Akkadian shalu means mountain, 
which would be a very suitable expression of the eternality of God. The 
Psalmist often applies the Hebrew word, mountain, zur to God. If this 
be the etymology of the word, its use would be an archaic touch. 

We need not agree with critical source division of Genesis to be- 
lieve that "Jehovah" was more widely used in late Hebrew than in early 
times. It may have been a Hebrew word and if so, would have been 
less used by the patriarchs who learned Canaanite as their second 
language. It is notable that none of the patriarchal families use the 


element Jehovah in their names. Shaddai-names also are rare, though 
the two we know are Pentateuchal, Zurishaddai and Shedeur. 

There is little else internally to date the book. The mention of 
domesticated camels in 1:3 would indicate to the Albright school that the 
book was later than the 13th century. But the date of domestication of 
camels is in dispute. It may be that in the settled areas camels were 
not common, but that nomands of the desert used them earlier. At least 
Abraham also had his camels. The mention of iron (19:24; 20:24; 28:2; 
40:18; 41:27) also might indicate a date after 1200 B.C. when the iron 
age began. But the occasional mention of iron at an earlier day is not 
surprising for iron was used in small amounts long before the discovery 
of better methods of iron working which made its use common in about 
1200 B.C. Two talents of iron — about 150 pounds — are mentioned in a 
Ugaritic tablet from Moses* day. Marvin Pope, in his Anchor Bible 
Commentary on Job, points out that the unit of money (or item of jew- 
elry) mentioned in Job 4:11 q e sita , is mentioned elsewhere only in Gen. 
33:19 and its parallel, Josh. 24:32. Job's longevity also- -140 years after 
his trial --is of the patriarchal vintage. 

Secondly, as to the historical background of Job, it seems to fit 
well with ideas and literature of the second millennium B.C. Pope re- 
marks that "the ideas championed by Job's friends were normative in 
Mesopotamian theology from the early second millennium B.C." (p. 
XXXV) and he compares several works on suffering: From Egypt, the 
Disp ute over Suicide and the Tale of the Eloquent Peasant , and from 
Mesopotamia, a lament called by S. N. Kramer T he First Job . The 
Akkadian work I will Praise the Lord of Wisdom , also called The Baby - 
lonian Job , describes a sufferer who recovers, and the Dialogue About 
H uman Mis ery, sometimes called the Babylonian Ecclesiastes is on a 
similar topic. Pope offers extracts from these works. They can be 
read conveniently in ANET. It should be noted that these works con- 
sider the problem of suffering, as does the book of Job, but their answer 
is quite different. Pope is accurate in stating that they agree by and 
large with the viewpoint of the three comforters. That is, they teach 
that wickedness brings suffering and righteousness blessing. But the real 
answer of Job was distinctive and far above his comforters and different 
from these early treatments. However, it is of importance to notice that 
the subject received extensive treatment in early times and thus Job fits 
well against the background of that day. 

Many, however, including Pope, have given a later date. Pfeiffer 
(I ntroduction to t he O. T . ) gives a date of about 600 B. C. Driver dated 
the book "most probably to the period of the Babylonian captivity" (I ntro - 
duction to the Lit erat ure of the O. T . , New York: Scribner's ed. of 
1892, p. 405). A. Bentzen is uncertain. He places the date of the book 


after the discussion of retribution in Ezekiel 18 and before the refer- 
ences to "the prophet Job who maintained all the ways of righteousness" 
in Ecclesiasticus 49:9. (Introduction to the O. T. , 4th ed. Copenhagen: 
G. E. C. Gad, 1958 Vol. l£ p. 1797. Eissfeldtls not positive, but says 
"we should probably think of the post-exilic period, and perhaps most 
probably of the later period rather than the earlier, i. e. , about the 
fourth century. The language of the book fits in with this, for it often 
reveals an Aramaic coloring, " ( The O. T . , an Introductio n, tr. by Peter 
R. Ackroyd, New York: Harper, 1965, p. 470). Both Eissfeldt's date 
and his arguments seem now to be invalidated by the Dead Sea Scrolls 
and better knowledge of the Aramaic language. Fragments of Job are 
found among the Dead Sea Scrolls actually dating from about 200 B. C. 
They are written in the paleo- Hebrew Script implying that there was a 
considerable history of copying behind them. And now to the further 
surprise of many, the Targum referred to above, an Aramaic transla- 
tion of Job, has been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The copy is 
from about A. D. 50, but the translation itself is dated by the editors at 
about 100 B. C. Evidently Job was already a loved and famous book in 
the second century B. C. 

More scholars have now veered toward a pre-exilic date. Al- 
bright dated it in "the sixth or fifth century B. C. " (Supplement to Vetus 
Testamen tum 3, - I960, p. 14). Pope hesitatingly suggests the seventh 
century B. C. before the movements that brought the destruction of Israel 
(p.xxxvii) as the date of the dialogue but does not commit himself on the 
unity of the book. As we hope to show later, there are cross references 
from the main body of the book to every other part. There is therefore 
no need to question its unity and to say that it existed for centuries in 
partial form. Some have declared that the references to Satan betray 
Persian influence. Strange then that there are no Persian words in the 
book! Satan is a name of Hebrew derivation, not Persian. Actually, 
the theology of the book should not be used as a datum for dating be- 
cause opinions will differ as to whether advanced theology indicates late 
borrowing or early revelation. 

It would be nice if the language of Job could be used to indicate 
the date, but we do not have contemporary Hebrew- -or eastern- -dialects 
to use as a standard. The language of Job is difficult and must be dis- 
cussed shortly, but it has been variously evaluated and can give us little 
help on the problem of dating. 

In the absence of definite evidences for late dating and in view 
of numerous indications of a patriarchal milieu, it seems possible to 
hold to a Mosaic or slightly pre-Mosaic date in accord with much old 
Jewish and Christian sentiment. However, the New Testament does not 
speak on either Job's authorship or date, and the date is not of theological 


concern. We may therefore hold our conclusion provisionally expecting 
further light, especially from linguistic studies. 

Job and the Canon 

In our Hebrew Bibles, Job is the second or the third book in the 
third division called the writings. Practically all the works on O. T. 
introduction, both conservative and critical, trace this three-fold divi- 
sion back as far as the prologue to Ecclesiasticus about 130 B.C. Crit- 
ical scholars suppose that the third division in the canon was placed last 
in the collection because it was latest in time. The canon is said to 
have developed in three stages with the law being canonized first at about 
400 B. C. , the prophets second at 200 B. C. , and the writings last at 
about A. D. 90. This final canonization was the work of the council of 
Jamnia. The idea is that the books of the third division were not gen- 
erally enough accepted to be included in the second division at 200 B. C . 
On this view, Job was finished at least at a relatively late date and at- 
tained canonical status only after 200 B. C. Some more recent scholars 
who would place Job in pre-exilic times do not face the question as to 
why it was not included in the earlier canonical divisions. 

Conservative scholars like E. J. Young and R. K. Harrison sug- 
gest that the tri-partite division was due to different types of authorship, 
rather than to different stages of canonization. (E.J. Young, An Intr o- 
ductio n to the O.T. , Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949, p. 41; R. K. 
Harrison, Intro ductio n to the O. T. , Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969, 
p. 284. ) The claim is that the second division was written by prophets 
and the third division by men who had the prophetic gift, but not the 
prophetic office. This characterization would apparently apply to the 
author of Job. I have elsewhere argued against this view (R. L. Harris, 
Inspiration and Can onicity of the Bible , Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1957, 
pp-129ff, 170ff). There is no biblical support for the distinction made 
between a prophet by office and a prophet by gift. Of course, in the 
case of Job, the matter is the more uncertain because, if Job were not 
the author, we have no valid information as to who was. Ecclesiasticus 
speaks of "the prophet Job" but his witness is too late to help, except 
that it reveals the attitude of Judaism of the second century B. C. 

Harrison relieves the problem somewhat by emphasizing the self- 
authenticating character of the Biblical books. These books and no others 
won their way first into Hebrew hearts, and therefore into the Jewish 
canon. Job is surely a book that would have commanded wide acceptance 
by the people of God. 

A further point, however, is important and is usually neglected 
by O. T. students. It is by no means certain that the division of books 


found in our Hebrew Bibles is the division common among the ancient 
Jews. Indeed, there is positive evidence that it was not. The present 
three-fold division with five books in the law, eight in the prophets, and 
eleven in the writings, cannot be traced back of the Talmud which was 
codified in the fifth century. There is a three-fold division mentioned 
in Ecclesiasticus, as stated above, but there is no proof that it was our 
three-fold division. On the contrary, Josephus, earlier than the Talmud, 
evidences a differing three-fold division with five books in the law, thir- 
teen in the prophets, and only four in the writings. From his termin- 
ology, it is clear that Josephus regarded such a book as Job-also Chron- 
icles, Daniel and others --as among the prophets. This evidence fits 
much better the reference in Ecclesiasticus to Job as a prophet and in 
Matthew 24:15 to Daniel as a prophet. Far too long, the Talmud has 
been used as the point of reference in canonical studies. Earlier wit- 
ness leads to quite different results. 

Actually the three-fold division of the canon was not the only one. 
The N. T. , the LXX and the Qumran evidence combine to show that there 
was also an ancient two -fold division of the canon into the Law and the 
prophets. This too I have argued elsewhere and need not pursue. But 
according to this division, Job would have been from early times accorded 
the place of a prophetic book. As a consequence, we cannot use the 
position of Job in the Hebrew Bible to argue either for a late or early 
date of its composition. Job was accepted, as far as our scanty evi- 
dence goes, from the time of its writing. If its prophetic authorship 
were acknowledged then, as it was believed later, this would doubtless 
have settled the matter of the acceptance of the book. In any case, the 
majesty of the style of Job and its other marks of divine inspiration 
would have commended itself to the ancient Hebrews. We need not doubt 
that it was accepted as canonical from the time of its writing, although 
the details are lost in the mists of antiquity. 

The Langauge of Job 

It is agreed on all sides that Job is a great book, as well as a 
beautiful one. It is also agreed by students beginning work in Hebrew 
poetry that Job is a difficult book to translate. Those who specialize in 
statistics say that there are more hapax legomena used in Job than in 
any other O. T. book. And the problems of translation are not entirely 
lexical either. There are unusual forms and some strange usages which, 
unless recognized, will lead the translator astray. An extreme example 
of the difficulty of translation is exhibited in the strange verse of the 
AV in 36:33. "The noise of it showeth concerning it; the cattle also 
concerning the vapor"- -a verse which as it stands is quite meaningless! 
The language is so unusual that some (F. H. Foster referred to in M. 
Pope, Job - The Anchor Bible , Garden City: Doubleday, 1965, p. XLIV - 


hereafter called: Pope, Job ) have supposed that the book was written in 
Arabic and what we have is a translation into Hebrew. If this be true, 
I would suggest that the translator did a poor job of rendering the work 
into Hebrew! On the face of it, such a view is unnatural. The first 
written Abrabic we have is from the 5th century A.D. , and the first lit- 
erature of any extent comes after the Hejira. It would be odd if our 
only monument of ancient written Arabic were in Hebrew! 

It is true, however, that there are some words in Job that are 
neatly explained by reference to Arabic. For instance in 23:9, the words 
"work" and "hide" in the AV may be derived from words meaning "turn" 
in the Arabic. Also the word "drops" in the AV of 38:28, "the drops 
of dew" is found elsewhere only in Arabic. Again in 30:7, 17, the word 
for "flee" or "rest" in the AV and found only here has an Arabic cognate 
"gnaw." (Though the sense hardly fits--to gnaw the wilderness! Com- 
mentators must supply something!) Actually, the Syriac has the same 
word, so an Arabic origin is not proved. Indeed, this example shows 
the difficulty of proving an Arabic original for a word. A root may be 
known at present only in Arabic and in Job, but our known vocabulary of 
ancient Aramaic is woefully small and the word in question may have been 
used in Aramaic also. Only occasionally can the phonetic differences 
between Aramaic, Arabic and other languages be used to identify the 
original language of the word concerned. 

An example may be given from Job 35:10. The word "songs" 
of AV is translated by Pope as "protection" deriving it from the Arabic 
root d m r "who gives protection in the night. " But the root also is 
now recognized in this sense in Ugaritic as a name of Baal (though not 
so recognized in Cyrus Gordon's Ugaritic Textbook, Glossary ) (Pope, 
Job in loc. ). 

A word on the place of Aramaic. There have been others who 
thought Job was written in Aramaic and translated into Hebrew. On the 
face of it, this view would be more natural, for Aramaic was used to 
the east and north of Palestine in pre-exilic times. According to Gen- 
esis 31:47, Laban spoke Aramaic and it would be quite possible to hold 
that Job did too. There are several Aramaic touches in the book. In 
16:19, the same pair of words for witness is found, as is used by Jacob 
and by Laban in Genesis 31:47, Galeed and Jegar-Sahadutha, and the 
word sahed is used nowhere else in the Bible. Students of beginning 
Hebrew will be relieved to find that the verb qatal does occur in Biblical 
Hebrew—twice in Job and once in Psalm 139, which has several Aramaic 
touches. By contrast, it occurs seven times in the short Aramaic sec- 
tions of Daniel and Ezra. Again, milla meaning w ord occurs several 
times in Job. This in itself is not surprising. It also occurs a number 
of times in other Hebrew poetry as a synonym of da bar . But in Job, 


the plural of milla thirteen times has the typical ending of the Aramaic 
noun--iy_n. Job also uses the Hebrew masc. pi. form in--iym ten times. 
The force of this example is slightly blunted by the fact that Phoenician 
and Moabite also use this ending. It was not peculiar to Aramaic. 

Other words cited as rare in Hebrew, but appearing in Aramaic 
are bag "clean" (33:9); naka "smite" (30:8) and za^ak '"extinguish" (Job 
17:1). The last example is curious for it presents an argument in re- 
verse. This word is the same as another word da^ak "extinguish" which 
is used five times in Job, three in Proverbs, and once in Isaiah and in 
Psalms. The two words are cognate roots. But according to ordinary 
Semitic phonetic law, the root with"d" should be Aramaic and the one 
with "z" should be Hebrew. So it is Job that shows a variety of usage 
and the other books which use only the Aramaic form. 

There is another Aramaic form of some interest for it shows 
mixture. In 37:4, the AV "stay them" (y ec a qq e bem ) comes from an 
Aramaic root c qb meaning to "hold back. " But it now seems that the 
final "m" is not the pronoun "them" but the enclitic "m" common in 
Ugaritic. It would therefore seem that the form is not an Aramaism 
but an archaic form sharing some features of Ugaritic and some of later 
Aramaic. It should be pointed out that several grammatical features 
formerly thought to be Aramaic are now seen to be native to old Can- 
aanite, as evidenced in Ugaritic- -so much so that Albrecht Goetze even 
classified Ugaritic as Aramaic. Most now hold that these features were 
simply early Canaanite, some of which survived in or were borrowed 
into Aramaic. In short, many features formerly called Aramaisms (and 
words called "late and poetic" in Brown, Driver and Briggs Hebrew Lex- 
icon) are now seen to be archaic. 

It should be recognized that Job's pecularities are not limited to 
Arabic and Aramaic evidences. The word for "vapor" in Job 36:27 (AV) 
is used elsewhere only in Genesis 2:6. The old translation "mist" or 
"vapor" was a guess. The word can now be identified as borrowed 
through the Akkadian from the Sumerian. It means "river" and refers 
to the river of Eden (see R. L. Harris, "Mist and the River of Eden," 
Jmrrnal_of_the_Evangelical Theologic al Society , Vol. 11, (1968) p. 177). 
Another Sumerian word may be concealed in the word for the constella- 
tion Mazzaroth (39:32 and "north" in 37:9 AV). It is possible that the 
"r" reflects the "1" of the Sumerian word for stars which still appears 
in the Jewish greeting "Mazal tov"--good luck! 

There are also Akkadian influences in Job. In 33:6, man is said 
to be a creature "nipped from clay" i.e. , created from, or of, the earth. 
The same expression occurs in the Gilgamesh Epic. Interestingly, it 
also occurs in the hymns of the Dead Sea Community, doubtless in 


dependence on Job. (Pope, Job in loc. and T. H. Gaster, The Dead Sea 
Scriptures, rev. ed. Garden City: Doubleday, 1964, p. 133). 

In 29:4, the word "secret" in AV is difficult but is cognate to the 
Akkadian sadadu meaning "to protect. " "The protection of God was over 
my home. " 

In other cases, however, words in Job which are cognate to Akka- 
dian are also found in Ugaritic. An example given by Pope (Job in loc. ) 
is the root c mq which usually means "valley" and is so translated by AV 
in 39:21. But a better sense is gotten from the meaning "strength" at- 
tested in Akkadian and Ugaritic both. 

One could well wonder if the peculiarities of Job were due more 
to similarities to the old Ugaritic material than to either Arabic, Ara- 
maic or Akkadian. The borrowed Akkadian words concerned are few, 
although we have an extensive Akkadian vocabulary for comparison. Our 
vocabulary of old North Arabic is nil, and of Aramaic is limited. Even 
our Ugaritic comprises only a fraction of that dialect. So it is well to 
be cautious. But Ugaritic influences are of various kinds, both in vo- 
cabulary, grammar, and concept. It would seem more likely that Job 
was more indebted to the northern and western Ugaritic neighbors. 

Only a few of the Ugaritic parallels need be given- -more are 
pointed out by Pope who has made an important contribution to the study 
of Ugaritic in his book El in the Ug aritic Texts, etc. The word "ac- 
quaint" of AV in 22:21 is better taken with the sense "yield" as in the 
shaphel conjugation in Ugaritic. The word "one" of AV in 23:13 could 
perhaps be the Ugaritic )hd cognate to Hebrew 'hz_and the phrase would 
mean "He, when he takes hold of a person. . . " Pope prefers a slight 
emendation looking in a different direction. In 36:28, the word "abun- 
dantly" of AV is better taken as the Ugaritic rb "showers." In 39:14, 
the word "leaveth" of AV is better taken as the Ugaritic £db cognate to 
Hebrew zb meaning "set, " "part" (Gordon, Ugaritic Studies in Glossa ry) 
and refers according to Pope (Job, in loc. ) following M. Dahood to the 
ostrich laying her eggs in the sand. In 39:25, the word "among" of the 
AV is read bd by Pope and NEB with the Ugaritic significance "song" or 
trumpet "blast"- -"at the blast of the trumpet he saith Aha!" 

A more significant borrowing from the Ugaritic is found in 36:30, 
33 where the preposition "upon" or "concerning" of AV is taken to be a 
shorter form of Elyon, the Most High as is witnessed to in Ugaritic. 
This rendition of the preposition ^al is used repeatedly by Dahood in his 
studies on the Psalms, also in the Anchor Bible Series. The difficult 
vs. 33 would read: "The Most High speaks in thunder; his anger burns 
against evil. " 


There are other similarities of Job to the Ugaritic literature. 
The use of an enclitic "m" on the end of verbs occurs in Ugaritic as it 
does in Akkadian. The occasional use of this feature in Biblical poetry 
is now widely recognized and several instances where "m" formerly was 
thought to be a 3 masc. pi. objective pronoun are now classed as the 
enclitic "m. " One instance has been noted above, Job 37:4. Other prob- 
able cases are 4:19; 17:1 and 24:1. Also, Gordon remarks (C.H.Gordon 
Ugaritic Studies - Grammar , Rome: Pontifical Bib. Inst. 1965, p. 138) 
that "waw" always stands first in a coordinating situation, but maybe 
delayed if it is in a subordinate clause. The Masoretes punctuated 36:7 
so that the second "waw" began a new clause. Pope gets better sense 
by translating "with kings on the throne he seats them. " Also the later 
"waw" in this verse may be so treated: "and they are exalted forever." 

There are some cases of Ugaritic phrases used in Job. In the 
difficult poem on wisdom, 28:11 the AV says "He binds the floods from 
overflowing. " The context apparently speaks of mining operations where 
precious stones are found but not wisdom. The phrase in 28:11 mibb e kiy 
n e harot has been taken as the preposition min, plus the root "to weep. " 
But there is another root nebek meaning "spring" used only in Job 38:16. 
This root was suggested already in Brown, Driver, Briggs for 28:11 and now 
the phrase is found in Ugaritic as the word for the "sources of the two ri- 
vers" where the dwelling of the Ugaritic deity El stood. The idea is that 
the miners reach the deep springs of water in their search for treasures. 

Another such instance is 36:13, where the phrase "hypocrites in 
heart" AV is the same phrase "impious -minded" (Pope, Job in loc), 
applied to the evil actions of the goddess Anath. 

From this brief survery of lexical and grammatical features, we 
come to the astonishing conclusion that the book of Job is difficult He- 
brew! But it may be said with some confidence that it is not difficult 
because it is late and aramaic , or late and Arabic in flavor. It shares 
some of these peculiarities regardless of their date or origin. But it 
also evidences touches of Mesopotamian language and clearly shows sim- 
ilarities to the old Canaanite dialect of Ugarit. It need not be supposed 
that the author lived in Ugarit. It may be remembered that Hinter Syria 
was a crossroads of caravans from Ugarit, from Canaan, from Arabia 
and from Mesopotamia. If Job wrote the book and was a rich and learned 
gentleman of the sons of the East, he would have had an international 
outlook and connections such as the book of Job shows. We do not know 
enough about ancient dialects to date Job by its language. But there are 
indications that it would fit an early date, better than the later. 

The Literature of Job 

The structure of the book is well known. There is a prose in- 
troduction and conclusion. In between, there is an extensive poetic di- 
alogue. Job, in great affliction raises the problem of innocent suffering. 


There are two rounds of speeches of Job and his three friends, Eliphaz, 
Bildad and Zophar. On the third circuit, Eliphaz speaks, then Job, then 
Bildad speaks very briefly. Job gives a long speech ending with an oath 
of innocency. 

The place of a third speech by Zophar is taken by a young upstart, 
Elihu, who is amazed that older heads have not put Job in his place. 
When Elihu is finished, or perhaps interrupting Elihu, Jehovah speaks to 
Job out of the storm. He speaks twice with Job and Job briefly responds 
each time in faith and humility. This leads to the final prose section 
chronicling Job's restoration to God's favor, to health, and to prosperity. 

There is no Biblical parallel to the structure of Job, and no close 
parallel in ancient literature to the format, although, as mentioned ear- 
lier, there are other treatments of the problems raised. The problems 
of the suffering of the innocent and the prosperity of the wicked have 
perplexed many and are treated by the Psalmists. Asaph asked "Will 
the Lord cast off forever?" but confessed "this is my infirmity, but I 
will remember the years of the right hand of the Most High" (Ps. 77: 
7-10). He trusted that his affliction would be removed in God's time. 
Psalm 88 is full of complaint, but does not see through the problem to 
an answer. Psalm 37:35 complains that the wicked prosper "like a 
greenbay tree. " But the answer is that the wicked man is soon gone. 
Psalm 73 comes closest to the thought of Job. The double problem of 
the suffering of the righteous and the prosperity of the wicked is solved 
in the sanctuary of God and, like Job, the Psalmist's thought is directed 
to God alone in heaven. But Job draws out the argument in extensu and 
reaches a grander expression of his conclusion. 

Efforts, of course, have been made to fragment the book of Job, 
as has been done with almost every other O. T. book. The prose parts 
at the beginning and end have been cut off. The speeches of Elihu and 
of Jehovah at the end have been called additions. Chapter 28 on wisdom 
has been questioned as an intrusion. 

Some conclusions are not only unnecessary, they go against the 
positive indications in the book of a unity. And there are other ancient 
compositions (e.g., the Protests of the Eloquent Peasant, ANET, pp. 
405ff) which have a poetic body sandwiched between a prose introduction 
and conclusion. 

It is true that the Tetragram YHWH is used in the introduction 
and conclusion, but not in the poetry. But 38:1 uses it to introduce 
Jehovah's highly poetic reply to Job from the storm. Also it seems that 
Bildad in Job 8:4 refers to the catastrophe that killed Job's sons as re- 
lated in the introduction. There are many places where one speaker in 
the dialogue refers to what another has said. The reference to man born 


of woman being born to trouble is given by Eliphaz in 5:7, by Job in 
14:1 and by Eliphaz again in 15:14 and by Bildad in 25:4. Job's long 
speech in 38:34 quotes a line of Eliphaz, 22:11. Also Job in 27:20 re- 
peats a previous phrase of 21:19. The Elihu speech of 34:3 repeats Job's 
remark of 12:11. The same is true of 33:11 with 13:27. Even the wis- 
dom chapter 28:26 is paralleled in the speech by Jehovah in 38:25. 

It is of some interest that the newly discovered Aramaic trans- 
lation of Job (J. P.M. Van der Ploeg and A.S. Van der Woude Le Targu m 
dejob, Leiden: Brill, 1971) follows the Hebrew text very closely. It is 
of course fragmentary. There are only two or three such instances of 
dislocation covered by the preserved text of the Targum (e. g. , Pope' s 
insertion of 26:1-4 between 27:1 and 2 and the dislocation of 31:38-40 
in N. E. B. ) But to the several dislocations alleged by the New English 
Bible, by Pope and other commentators, the Targum gives no support. 
On the other hand, the Targum has one verse dislocated in Job's second 
response to the Lord (40:5 replaces 42:3). The witness of the Targum, 
of course, cannot be pressed. It only goes back to about 100 B.C., but 
such as it is, it is in the direction of the integrity of the text of Job. 

The LXX text of Job presents problems of its own. Origen and 
Jerome say that it was considerably shorter than the Hebrew, but our 
major manuscripts do not show these lacunae. They presumably have 
been filled out from Theodotion or some other source. The Old Latin 
witnesses to the shorter text, but this witness is fragmentary and it is 
hard to evaluate Origen's witness without more information. The wit- 
ness of the new Targum is the more welcome, as it reaches back almost 
to the days of the original LXX translation. 

As to the poetry and style of the book of Job, it may be helpful 
to apply to it remarks I have made elsewhere on the Psalms ("The 
Psalms" in The Biblical Expositor, ed. C. F. H. Henry, Phila: Holman, 
1960, Vol. II). It is well known that Hebrew poetry is characterized 
by parallelism and the use of synonomous expressions to gain repetition. 
But the secret of great Hebrew poetry is not its rhyme and meter. Mere 
rhyme and meter may be found in English doggerel like the Mother Goose 
rhymes for children. Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. But we can 
hardly say that he fell in great verse! So it is with Hebrew poetry. 
The poetry of Job is great because it deals in magnificent ways with 
great subjects. The thought and conception is great. For this reason, 
it is great poetry, even in a fairly literal translation, such as that of 
the AV. I once had a friend, in the family, not a Bible student or 
scholar, who characterized the lines in Job 38:7 as the most beautiful 
in the English language . . . "Who laid its cornerstone, when the morn- 
ing stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy?" The 
intensity of Job's trial is shown in the introduction with the successive 
reports of calamity punctuating his peace like pistol shots in the night. 


The depth of his trial is revealed in his facing in its stark reality the 
awfulness of the problem of a good God who grants no justice. Note that 
Job spends very little time on his physical ailments. Not once does he 
tell us where it hurts! Because Job's hurt is the hurt of the heart of 
lost humanity. And by the same token, the book rises out of the depths 
of despair to confident heights of faith and revelation of God. Some 
commentators profess to find contradictions in Job's speeches and even 
assign part of his last speech to Zophar. They fail to realize that Job 
is grappling with what some today call the antinomies of existence. He 
sees the problem deeply. But he never lets go completely of his faith 
that these problems of earth have an answer in God. And he rises al- 
most to the beatific vision in his assurance that he himself with his own 
eyes will behold God and then all will be well. But as in the case of 
Martha, whose hope was for her brother's future ressurrection, God 
graciously gave a larger promise. Jesus said to Martha, "I am the 
resurrection and the life. " And to Job, God said I am the Almighty 
God. In my protection you are secure. Pope is correct that the "book 
presents profundities surpassing those that may be found in any of its 
parts . . . the values men cherish, the little gods they worship- -family, 
home, nation, race, sex, wealth, fame- -all fade away . . . confidence 
in this One is the only value not subject to time. " (Pope, Job, p. 
lxxvii). Job is great literature. And it has answers from God. 

M ythology? o r Reve la tion? 

In addition to all the problems raised by the unusual dialect of 
the book of Job and the problems of the theology yet to be considered, 
there are problems that we turn to now concerning the alleged mythical 
background of the book. 

A prominent feature of the book of Job is the reference to Behe- 
moth and Leviathan in Chapters 40 and 41. What are these creatures? 
They are famous enough that an ocean liner was named after one and 
the other has become a synonym for something of jumbo size. It is 
possible that these are ancient names for actual animals and the hippo- 
potamus and crocodile have most often been nominated. However, ad- 
vancing study of ancient times and, especially the discovery of the myth- 
ology of Ugarit, has inclined many to find here and elsewhere in Job a 
reference to the mythology of the cultures surrounding Israel. The 
question before us is, must we recognize in Job such mythology and if 
so, does it present theological problems? 

The problem concerns not only Job, but Psalms, Isaiah and pas- 
sages in a few other books as well. Leviathan is mentioned by name 
in Psalm 74:14; 104:26 and Isaiah 27:1, as well as in Job 3:8 and 41:1. 
The reference in Isaiah calls Leviathian the fleeing serpent, the crooked 


serpent. The former expression is found also in Job 26:13 in a con- 
text that also may be mythological. Pope (Job in loc. ) says that the re- 
ference in Job 26:13 is to the dragon that causes eclipses! The line in 
Isaiah is very much like a Ugaritic text: "Because thou didst smite 
Lotan, the writhing serpent/didst destroy the crooked serpent/the ac- 
cursed one of seven heads" (C. H. Gordon Ugaritic Literature, a Com - 
prehensive Translation , Rome: Pontifical Bib. Inst. 1949; cf. alsoANET 
p. 138). The words "writhing" and "crooked" are those used in the Isaiah 
passage. Furthermore Leviathan in Psalm 74:14 is pictured as multi- 
headed. It looks very much as if Leviathan sometimes in the Bible is 
a name for a mythological monster. This seven-headed monster is pic- 
tured on a seal and on a piece of shell as a somewhat dinosaur-like 
creature with seven heads placed one below another on the long neck. 
A hero with a spear is seen on the seal having pierced the lower four 
heads of the dragon. Apparently the seal depicts the conquest of Levi- 
athan, or Lotan as the Ugaritic pronunciation has it. It is pictured in 

The question is, how does such a description of Leviathan fit in 
with Biblical revelation? The answer is not too difficult. The Bible uses 
the mythology of antiquity without approving of it. The symbolism of 
Daniel is instructive. In Daniel 7, the first kingdom, the Babylonian, is 
symbolized by a lion with eagle's wings. This symbol is well-known 
from Mesopotamian architecture. In Daniel's vision, God used this sym- 
bol to identify Babylon, but there is no approval or disapproval of the 
symbol. Actually the dreadful fourth beast of Daniel 7 with ten horns 
is pictured again in Revelation 13 as a dragon with seven heads and ten 
horns. The devil in Revelation 12 is also pictured as a dragon with 
seven heads. Presumably these instances tell us that the old mytholog- 
ical symbol of an evil dragon is used as a symbol of the devil and his 
minions. »We may conclude that mythological symbols are used in the 
Bible for purposes of illustration and communication of truth without in 
the least adopting the mythology or approving of its ideas. J 

Albright argues that this process was widespread in ancient Israel 
and calls it "demythologizing," though rejecting the Bultmannian overtones 
of that word. (Albright, Yah weh and the Gods of Canaan , Garden City: 
Doubleday, 1968, pp. 183-207). He gives examples of pagan deities or 
practices which were part of Israel's background, but were robbed of 
their pagan meaning before they were made a part of Israel's religion. 
His example is the word "cereal" which we use daily without in the 
slightest taking part in the worship of the goddess Ceres or believing 
that she spent half of her time in the underworld. 

Albright makes the flat statement, "It may confidently be stated 
that there is no true mythology anywhere in the Hebrew Bible. What we 


have consists of vestiges --what may be called the 'debris' of a past re- 
ligious culture" ( op. cit . p. 185). Actually Albright goes farther than 
is necessary in finding examples in the Bible. He assumes that the word 
tehom in Gen. 1:2 comes from the ancient myths of Marduk's fight with 
Tiamat when he created the world from her carcass. Albright believes 
the old story was demythologized. Actually, we should remember that 
many of the ancient deities were named after natural objects and forces. 
Deus means sky, Chronos means time, Tiamat and tehom mean fresh 
water, Yamm means sea. All of these items were deified probably be- 
cause of animistic ideas. It is not clear that tehflm first meant the 
deity of the water, then became demythologized into water. Rather it 
was the reverse. « There was a god Yamm in Ugaritic who was god of 
the sea, but the meaning "sea" in all probability came first, not vice- 
versa. And usually when the word yamm is used in the Hebrew Bible, 
it is used without any reference to a deity of the sea at all. 

Nevertheless, it is true that in Job there are several instances 
where mythological items are referred to and we should recognize these 
without concluding that the book had pagan overtones in its make-up. 
These are studied in a perceptive article by Elmer B. Smick, "Mytho- 
logy and the Book of Job, " Journal of the Evangelical Theo lo gical Society , 
Vol XIII part 2, 1970, pp. 101-8. 

Job cursed his day at the beginning of his dialogue. In the pro- 
cess, he calls for a curse from "those who curse the day ( yom) " or 
"those who curse yamm (God of the Sea), those skilled to rouse Levia- 
than. " This mythological reference is only an allusion and means no 
more than our use of Norse deities for the names of the days of the 
week. But it is probable that there is here an allusion to evil deities. 

Other references to the sea as a deity may be found in 7: 12. 
"Am I the Sea God (Yamm) or the Sea Serpent (Tannin) that you set a 
guard over me?" asks Job, and in 9:8, Job acknowledges God as creator 
of the stars "who treads on the high places of the sea. " The idea of 
"high places of the sea" is peculiar. The corresponding word in Ugari- 
tic means the "back" of an animal or man or god (C. H. Gordon U gari - 
tic Studies -- Glossary ). Therefore, the suggestion is that God the cre- 
ator is pictured as trampling on the back of the god, Yamm, in confining 
the sea to its borders. A word of caution may be expressed. These 
may be references to mythology, but again, the words yamm and tannin 
have literal meanings which are not impossible in these two contexts. 
We may find here the mythological motifs, but also we may have some 

In 9:13, close to the yamm context, there is the mention of the 
"helpers of Rahab" who bow under him. Rahab is mentioned again in 


26:12: by his strength he put the sea (or the Sea God Yamm) to rest; 
by his wisdom he smote Rahab. " The following verses speak of his 
conquering the fleeing serpent as already mentioned. It is true that 
Rahab can mean "proud ones," and to quell the sea is a natural figure, 
but it is perhaps more likely in these contexts that Job celebrates the 
power of God in conquering the evil and proud mythological deities of 
the heathen. 

Another pair of deities is found by some in Job 38:36. "Who 
hath put wisdom in the inward parts (tuhot) or who hath given under- 
standing to the heart (sekwiy)?" Here Pope (Job, in loc.) and others 
find mention of the Egyptian god of wisdom Thoth and Mercury (Coptic: 
Souchi). Albright accepts the translation Thoth, but declares the alleged 
Coptic name of Mercury arose by a modern mistake (o p. cit. p. 245ff). 
The traditional translation of the words seems quite enough in this pas- 

Another alleged reference to a pagan god is in 5:7, "Man is born 
to trouble as sparks (sons of Resheph) fly upward. " Resheph was indeed 
the god of burning and pestilence, but res heph also referred to literal fire 
and pestilence. The sons of Resheph are not understandable in this con- 
text if it refers to a deity. The traditional. rendering is satisfactory. 

There are a few other alleged mythological renderings, but they 
are probably not necessarily so. The references to Behemoth and Levi- 
athan in 40 and 41 remain to be considered. 

The word Behemoth is merely the plural of the word "cattle." 
The plural of majesty or excellence could thus designate a big cow-like 
beast and the hippopotamus has been suggested. Pope (Job, in loc. ) 
adopts the mythological interpretation and speaks of the human-headed 
bull of heaven pictured like the water buffalo of the swamps above Galilee. 
What was said above is applicable here. There was a bull of heaven in 
mythology and the Behemoth could have been that. This reference in Job 
could be, on the other hand, a literal water buffalo. Or it could have 
been a hippopotamus with which Palestinians were familiar, even though 
these animals did not live in the Jordan area. Verse 23 does not demand 
that they did. Mention of the strong tail, however, ,fits neither the buf- 
falo nor hippopotamus. I would suggest that most fearsome of beasts, 
the elephant. The elephant even more than the hippopotamus drinks up 
the river at a gulp and the African elephant is not tamed. It is true 
that the elephant's tail also is minimal, but the astonishing feature of 
an elephant is the appendage at the other end. Is it not possible that 
the Hebrew znb could refer to trunk equally as well as tail? 

Leviathan is here pictured not as an evil deity, but as an animal. 
Again, we remember that the deity was usually invented by investing a 


normal object or animal with divine powers. There was probably at some 
time a literal animal called Leviathan. If this reference in Job is the 
deity Leviathan, it is odd that his main feature, his seven heads, is not 
mentioned. Rather his natural parts and physical strength and ferocity 
are dwelt upon. The sparks and smoke from his nostrils surely are 
but hyperbole. Whether it refers to the crocodile or to a whale, we 
perhaps cannot be sure. Obviously, it is a creature of the sea which 
was so greatly feared that in mythology it became worshipped. 

This is, I believe the extent of the mythology of Job. We turn 
now to its theology. 

The Theology of Job: The Character of God 

We come in this last section to the climax of the book of Job 
which is, as all realize, the revelation of God who speaks to Job out of 
the whirlwind. Job in his agony had sought for God and asked to set out 
his case before God. He had pleaded his innocence before God. Now at 
last God speaks and Job, though the confrontation is not what he had asked 
for, nonetheless has the answer to his deepest desire and he is satisfied. 

There is somewhat of a problem in studying the subject of the 
character of God in the book of Job, for much of the book is fallacious 
in its revelation. We can say this reverently, of course. All of the 
book is inspired and actually all the characters except Satan express 
some elements of truth, but at least the speeches of the three comfort- 
ers are not normative for theology. Job himself, as we have seen, grew 
in his faith and understanding. Surely Job's idea of life after death 
progressed greatly during the course of his trial. Some things Job 
said about God are true. Some things are not. So, much of the di- 
alogue is not divine teaching and for fully authoritative teaching about 
God, we are restricted to the speeches of Jehovah at the end and to the 
prose framework at the start and finish of the book. We may remark 
that the case is somewhat like that in Ecclesiastes. There also, there 
is much in the book that is preliminary to the conclusion. The author 
there tries various philosophies of life and finds them false. He is shut 
up to the final conclusion that the chief end of man is to fear God and 
keep His commandments. So also in Job, it is the final answer that we 
want. It was the ultimate vision of God that satisfied the patriarch's 

God reveals himself first to Job as creator. It is of interest to 
compare God's first revelation in Genesis. The sacred scriptures begin 
with the creative activity of God. Here God is superlatively shown to be 
God without competitor or equal. The corollary is that God is the only 
eternal one and all else sprang into existence at God's command. The 


first chapter of Genesis outlines a procedure in God's creation. Job 
gives none of these details. The teaching is contained in highly figura- 
tive rehetorical questions that remind us how puny man is in comparison 
to the power of God, the Creator of all. One need not explore the use 
of time as a fourth dimension to realize that time for us is very short. 
We are creatures of a day. The Psalmist says that we are like grass 
which grows up in the morning and is cast down in the evening (Ps. 90:6). 
But God is eternal. A thousand years to him is but a watch in the night. 
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth (Job 38:4)? How 
we would wish to know at least some of the secrets of God's creation! 
How old is the universe? Is the big bang theory of the origin of matter 
correct? And if so, did the original fireball spring into being when God 
first enunciated the laws that govern time, space, energy and matter? 
What is matter and what is energy after all, now that we have found to 
our horror that they are interconvertible? We have begun to see in re- 
cent years something of the ferocity of elemental force, as well as some- 
thing of the immensity of the reaches of space. We might remember that 
we are not the first ones to know a little something of these things. 
Lightning probably awed the ancients as much as it frightens us. And 
among the Greeks at least, there was at least an idea of the distances 
of space. Two hundred fifty years before Christ, Eratosthenes in Egypt 
had measured the circumference of the earth to within ten percent of the 
correct figure (see the article "Eratosthenes" in the Encyclopedia Brit - 
tanica). And Ptolemy, the astronomer, shortly after Christ, assures us 
that the distance to the stars is so great that the earth in comparison 
is a point without magnitude. His estimate was around a billion miles. 
We know now that his estimate was far too small. But man is about as 
puny beside a billion miles as beside ten-billion light years. 

It is hardly necessary to add that God does not tell Job that the 
world is set on foundations with supporting pillars and a cornerstone. 
The morning stars do not really sing and the bounds of the sea are set 
not by doors and bars. Its bounds are set by gravitation — if only we 
knew what gravitation is! Elsewhere (26 : 7) Job had confessed that God 
hangs the earth on nothing. But how God hangs the earth and how he 
formed the earth and the world are still mysteries which we attempt to 
probe, but how little we understand of the power of God the creator. 

I am convinced that one great problem of modern thought is the 
result of a determined denial of God's creatorship. Evolution is now in 
the popular mind today an explanation of how God created (a false ex- 
planation, I believe. ) But it has become an alternative idea to God's 
creation. Evolution, however, cannot explain the beginning of things. 
It is accompanied by purely philosophical concepts of origin by chance, 
the eternality of matter, etc. , and a flat denial of God. One result is 
that human personality is unexplainably alone in a sea of chaos. Thought 


has no basis for validity. Art has no reason or coherence. Life has 
no meaning and death no hope. Against this torrent of despair comes 
the clear revelation of God. "Before the mountains were brought forth 
or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world even from everlasting 
to everlasting, thou art God" (Ps. 90:2). It is significant that when 
John hears the angels in heaven praising the Father, their song is "thou 
art worthy. . . for thou hast created all things and for thy pleasure they 
are and were created. " If God be really the Creator, we are assured 
that he is the ultimate reality. There is none behind or over him. Job 
no longer seeks an umpire. There is none beside Him. 

But God is not only transcendent Being. He reveals himself to 
Job in his providence. The Westminister Shorter Catechism defines Gocfs 
works of providence as his "most holy, wise and powerful, preserving 
and governing all His creatures and all their actions. " God is immanent 
in the sense that He is active in His creation. He is not a part of the 
world process. But He directs the world process in wisdom that we are 
only beginning to appreciate. Because there are second causes, some 
men now stop with second causes and leave God out. The result is a 
material universe that can never explain itself or satisfy man who, if 
he has any significance at all, has a non-material aspect we call the 
soul. Does Job know the weather? Can he direct the thunder? I under- 
stand that the force of a hurricane is equal to several atomic explosions 
each minute. The mere force required to make the wind blow at sixty 
to a hundred miles per hour over a diameter of some hundreds of miles 
is staggering. It is no contradiction in the Bible when Isaiah 5:6 says 
that clouds bring rain and Job 38:28 asks "Hath the rain a father? Or 
who hath begotten the drops of dew?" Again the poetry of Job is striking 
in its figures of speech. And the thrust of it is that puny man can ob- 
serve the stars, but it is the Almighty God who guides the stars in their 
courses. There is matter of great comfort here. We are not alone in 
the fell clutch of circumstance and we do not suffer under the bludg- 
eonings of chance. We live under the protecting shadow of a Sovereign 

The providence of God extends to the remarkable and peculiar 
phenomena of the animal world. Do you understand the gestation of the 
wild goats? Obviously, as an ancient cattleman, Job knew something of 
the mating and birth of his animals. We know much more. We know 
that sperm and ova are produced and that they unite in the miracle of 
life. The chromosomes and genes intermingle, then the cells multiply. 
Some become liver tissue, some nerve cells, some bones and some 
blood. And how is it and why is it that it all happens just this way? 
What man would have dreamed up the ostrich, that peculiar bird. The 
only bird, I understand, with eyelashes! Why, I have no idea. The only 
bird, I understand, equipped with a bladder! Again, why? There surely 
is a reason, but how strange are some of God's creatures! Some have 


questioned if the ostrich is as dumb as the verses seem to say. I sup- 
pose that depends on what you compare it with! Most would not think 
of turkeys as dumb, but I have seen young turkeys hang themselves get- 
ting out of the tree where they roosted! The ostrich is dumb on some 
counts. Yet as the passage says, when she lifts herself up, or as Pope 
(Job , inloc.) explains it, when she spreads her tail feathers and runs, 
she can outdistance any horse with ease. The wild ass, the ox, the 
ostrich, the horse, the hawk, the vulture- -these are but samples of 
the varied, specialized and peculiar creation which God controls. And 
if God controls these creatures of the wild, he can care for me. Bryant 
said of the waterfowl, 

"He who from zone to zone guides through the distant 
air thy certain flight 

In the long path that I must tread alone can guide my 
steps aright. " 

The example of Behemoth and Leviathan have been dealt with already. 
The teaching is that he who made Behemoth the chief of the ways of God 
can make his sword to approach unto him, (40:19), Is it not a powerful 
thought that God is in control? And remember that this control depends 
not just on power, but on infinite wisdom as well. 

The essential- affirmation of the book of Job, however, is not the 
mere power and wisdom of God, marvelous as these are, but the affirm- 
ation of the righteousness, the rectitude of God. This was Job's prob- 
lem. He was ready to acknowledge the power of God. Indeed, that 
God's power was far beyond Job's was part of his problem. But is God 
good? Abraham confessed that the judge of all the earth will do the 
right (Gen. 18:25). Job had questioned. It is not right for God to des- 
troy the perfect and the wicked (9:22). But God cannot let pass that 
charge. Job humbles himself in his first answer. But God demands a 
further answer. "Wilt thou annul my judgment? Wilt thou condemn me 
that thou mayest be justified?" (40:8). Job could see but the tiny fringe 
of God's purposes. God reveals himself as one who above all is holy, 
righteous and just. Job's sin was not final. His faith burned low at 
times but was never out. He trusted God even when he doubted God's 
ways and God led him through the sea, even if not on dry land. 

But there comes a day when others must meet God. I quoted 
above from Henley's poem, "I thank whatever Gods may be for my un- 
conquerable soul. " I am told that later, Henley lost his ten year old 
daughter and was broken up by the tragedy. Our souls are not uncon- 
querable. Some day all will stand before the judgment seat of God in 
an experience not like Job's, and not like the alleged person to person 
encounter of existentialism, but in the dark. And in that dread day, 


all men will lay their hand upon their mouth for the judgments of God 
are true and righteous altogether and they are final. No man then will 
annul God's judgment and Satan will then be put away, and death and 
hell consigned to the lake of fire, and God's power, wisdom, glory, and 
righteousness will be fully revealed. 

There is one more point. The conclusion of Job, like the pro- 
logue is part of the book and has a lesson. God is merciful. You have 
heard of the patience (or endurance) of Job and have seen the end of the 
Lord that the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy. Job was re- 
stored even in this life. He had come to trust in a future life. But 
even this life is blessed for the child of God. So Satan was overcome 
as he will be vanquished at last in God's good time. He will overcome 
him by the blood of the Lamb of God, for the accuser of our brethren 
shall be cast down who accused them before the throne of God day and 
night. Therefore rejoice ye heavens (Rev. 12:10-12). 

The Theology of Job: Rewards 

Pope is correct, "The issues raised are crucial for men and the 
answers attempted are as good as have ever been offered" ( Job, p. 
LXXVII). Pope himself misses, I believe, one grand answer in Job- - 
the doctrine of the future life. The name "thsodicy" was applied, I 
believe, by Leibnitz to the question of the justification of the ways of 
God with regard to evil in the universe. It is a problem for theism. 
Beudelaire, seeing the injustice in the world and hearing that God was 
in control, remarked that "your God is my devil. " He was not so far 
wrong! The Bible says that in a sense the devil is in control of much 
that goes on in this world. The indispensable prologue to Job makes it 
clear that Satan has much power here and now- -with the necessary caveat, 
under God. This is not the best of all possible worlds. That was the 
deists' perversion, hot the Christian teaching. "In the world, ye shall 
have tribulation'" is a further statement of Job's complaint: "Man is born 
to trouble as the sparks fly upward. " We ask in our groaning, why does 
not God do something in Vietnam, in Bangladesh, or with the Berlin wall? 
We ask, worse yet, why did God do what he did years ago in the Lisbon 
earthquake, or today in the Calcutta tidal wave? Is God cruel? Is Krish- 
na the destroyer actually a part of the deity? These were the awful 
thoughts that crowded in on Job when he was called upon existentially to 
face the question posed in Ecclesiastes 4:1, "the oppressions that are 
done under the sun. " 

Job did not know and the comforters did not know that Job was 
suffering for the honor of God himself and to the shame of Satan, the 
author of sin. A groaning world today has not read the prologue of Job. 
It does not believe in Satan as really evil, or in God as really good. 


As a result, a European leader like Hermann Hesse turns to Eastern 
philosophy denying, as he does in his Siddharta, all distinctions of right 
and wrong, of pain and pleasure, of man and God and eternity. All be- 
comes merged in a river of indistinction. There is no meaning. As 
Matthew Arnold had said in Dover Beach , 

We are here as on a darkling plain swept by confused 
alarms of struggle and of flight where ignorant armies 
clash by night. 

Job cursed his day. Pope remarks ( Job, p. xiii) that James 5:11 
gives an unbalanced view in referring to the patience of Job. That, how- 
ever, was when the book began. Job gave absolute submission to the 
will of God. Because God was God, Job was at first content. And it 
should be noted from 1:22 and 2:10 that this is the truly acceptable at- 
titude before God. But theory is one thing and life is another. God 
would give the world an example in extremis . He does that sometimes. 
Paul called himself an example of God's deepest grace. Ananias and 
Sapphira were made an example to the early church. D. L. Moody 
heard a preacher say, the world has yet to see what God can do with 
a fully yielded Christian. Moody said, I will be that man. And God 
made him a great example to bless the hearts of multitudes. God made 
Job an example and a comfort to thousands since his time. God may 
have even laughed as he used Satan to direct Job's longing, and ours 
also, to higher things than children, and sheep, and camels and oxen. 
God had a plan for Job's life --and for yours. 

But Job now descended into the valley of the shadow. And in his 
misery, he longed for death as the final answer. In lines of great beauty 
he sought the grave "where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary 
are at rest. " Hamlet pondered suicide. There are only two cases of 
suicide in the Bible- -Ahithophel and Judas. Suicide is not the way out 
for one who believes that there is a God and that our life is sacred be- 
cause we are made in God's image. And these great verities Job could 
not forget. But Job's first three speeches each end with the longing for 
the oblivion of the grave. 

Eliphaz confronts Job with a different view. He even claims a 
revelation (4:13) though he was clearly a false prophet. He declares 
that foolish men, i.e., sinners, are the ones who suffer and that there- 
fore God must be chastening Job. If Job repents, God will wonderfully 
restore. Eliphaz here, as far as I can see, speaks for the other friends 
including Elihu. I can see little progress in the argument of the "mi- 
serable comforters" as Job called them. They declare that Job must 
have sinned and therefore he suffers. If he will rectify his conduct, 
God will restore him. Actually this is the view expressed in those several 


related treatises on suffering from Egypt and Babylonia which was re- 
ferred to in the first lecture. This is really the view of the world today. 
If there be a just God, he must punish sin now and reward righteousness 
now. If this is not done, we cannot believe that God is real. This atti- 
tude was dramatized by the skeptic, Robert Ingersoll. On the platform, 
he would dare God to strike him dead in one minute. The audience 
waited in silence and at the end of a minute, he pocketed his watch de- 
claring that he had proved that there was no God. On one occasion, a 
newspaper editorial the following day asked if the little man had thought 
that he could exhaust the patience of the Almighty in sixty seconds! But 
twentieth century man is not noted for his patience. We expect judgment 
now or else not at all. Really the view of the three comforters amounts 
to the idea that you get all your hell and all your heaven in this life! 
There has been some question about Job's doctrine of resurrection. But 
note that not one verse in the speeches of the three friends or Elihu direct 
Job's eyes to the hereafter for bliss or blame. Their's is the little quid 
pro quo of the disciples, "Master, who did sin this man or his parents 
that he was born blind?" Christ's answer applies also to Job, "Neither. . . 
but that the works of God should be made manifest in him. " And God's 
works in Job at the last were manifest to devils, angels, and men. 

In Job's first round of speeches, he doesn't get much further 
than an anguished cry to God for relief and a plea for death. He de- 
clares that, he is not wicked (10:7) and complains that God destroys the 
perfect and wicked alike (9:22). Job has no chance, for there is no pos- 
sible umpire between him and God (9:33); he therefore asks God to take 
away his hand before he goes to the land of no return (10:21). 

The picture of the grave that Job draws thus far is close to ob- 
livion. Indeed this is his only hope (3:13-22). It is a place of quiet, 
of sleep, death ( maweth ) and the tomb ( qeber ) are in parallelism. In 
his second speech, Job pictures the grave as the end and therefore he 
will give rein to his complaint (7:11). He expects to "go down to Sheol" 
and not come up (7:9). He will "sleep in the dust" and he will not be. 
The same thoughts recur in his third speech. He wished he had been 
"carried from the womb to the grave (qeber)'" (10:19). He longs for the 
land of darkness, disorder and gloom. It may be noted that Job's con- 
cept of that land differs notably from that of the Babylonian underworld, 
(cf. the description in ANET, p. 109). Here are no monsters, gods 
or goddesses. It is not a peopled place of consciousness. It is as near 
soul sleep as we can get. But from another angle, it does not describe 
soul sleep. It does not describe the soul at all. It describes rather 
the tomb to which the body goes. This was, just then, the extent of his 
concern. Death, the tomb ( qeber ), Sheol, and the land of darkness are 
the terms used. The Palestinian tomb was cut in the rock. It was, of 
course, dark; it was down. It held the bones and dust of many genera- 
tions. One decayed body was pushed back in the crypt when another was 


laid in. The body of course slept. The soul was not then in Job's view. 
Neither was any Babylonian place of departed spirits. 

In Job's second round of speeches, he continues his bitter com- 
plaint, but something new has been added. Job now does not long for 
death. He holds on to his innocence and is sure of justification (13:18). 
He is confident that God will be his salvation (13:16). But there is a 
problem in the key verse, "though he slay me, yet will I trust in him" 
(13:15). RV translated "He will kill me, I have no hope." NEB says, 
"If he would slay me I should not hesitate. " The problem concerns the 
word 15' (not) which may also be read lo_ (for it). The Hebrew conson - 
antal text gives the first reading, the vocalic text the second. Most of 
the versions read it the second way. Unfortunately, the new Targum 
does not cover this section. In view of the uncertainty, it is not wise 
to be dogmatic, yet it may be pointed out that the verb "hope" or "wait 
for" usually is used with a prepositional complement "1" (for). If this 
be the case, the AV reading "though he slay me yet will I trust in him" 
is the true reading. It would fit the context very well. 

In this same speech, Job rises to further heights which are often 
not noticed because translations do not always bring out the structure of 
the passage (14:7-15). Job is still in great distress. But now, like 
Hamlet, he looks beyond the moment of death and asks what dreams 
may come when we have shuffled off this mortal soil. Here for the 
first time in the book, someone raises the question of a future life. 
That alone is highly significant. Here is a new phase of the argument. 
"If a man die shall he live again?" The question of God's justice and 
acceptance of a man is here raised off the mundane plane into the sphere 
of the future. Job trembles on the threshold of a new hope. Is it per- 
haps that although this is not the best of all possible worlds, that there 
is another one to come? Job sees, as it were, a light in the keyhole 
of the door in heaven which John the apostle saw opened full wide. 

Job's argument begins where it should begin. Job is God's child. 
He considers a tree, an insensate thing, yet it has persistent life. If 
it is cut down, though it seems to die, it will by water at the roots, 
put forth a second growth. The verb is ha lap . It will bud and grow. 
This is for a mere tree. But man! Of greater worth, a child of God, 
the word of God's hands. Man dies and never rises till the heavens 
grow old. He does not awake (qys) nor rise ( c wr ). Then Job wishes 
to be hidden in Sheol, until God's wrath passes over and God might re- 
member him. Surely Sheol here means the grave. But will God remem- 
ber him? Job answers his great question by a declaration that he would 
"wait" (same word as "trust" in 13:15 treated above) until his second 
growth ( h e lipah ) would come. Job seizes the thought that man is of far 
greater worth to God than a mere tree. "Thou shalt call and I will 


answer thee; thou wilt have a desire to the work of thine hands. " Here 
Job in a pinnacle of faith looks beyond the tomb to the resurrection call 
of God. It is a pinnacle. Job does not maintain this hope undimmed. 
But he has cried out in faith and he has begun to see that the answers 
to the great questions after all lie in God who made us for himself, and 
we may reverently reverse Augustine's famous remark. God made us 
to fellowship with himself and he is not satisfied until he brings us to 
rest in him. 

Tur-Sinai ( The Book of Job , in loc . ) is very unsatisfactory here. 
Tur-Sinai does not associate the two words for second growth. He re- 
arranges some lines and emends others. On verse 13, he makes the 
surprising comment, "Job interrupts the presentation of facts (i.e., of 
man's eternal death) with rhetorical unrealistic wishes; would that the 
fate of man, and my own fate, were like that of a tree by the water, 
so that, after a period of waiting in Sheol, I might return to life. " This 
quotation is simply an admission that some modern commentators find 
Job's affirmation of resurrection hopelessly unrealistic. But then per- 
haps the commentators have not had to think as deeply as Job did. 

The next speech of Job, the fifth, does not advance. He casti- 
gates his miserable comforters and complains that God has turned him 
over to wicked men. But he declares that he is innocent and calls heaven 
to witness as he cries unto God for relief. Then he returns to the 
thought of death. This time he does not seem to long for death as he 
did earlier, but regards it as the end of his hope (17:15). The word 
"wait" (AV) of 17:13 is the same root as "hope" in 17:15. The persons 
of the verbs in the last verse of the chapter can be read differently in 
agreement with Pope (Job , in loc. ) and NEB. But Pope's question marks 
need not be adopted. I offer this translation: 

If I have hope, sheol (the grave) is my house. 

I will spread my couch in the darkness. 

I have called corruption my father and the worm my 

mother and sister, 

Where then is my hope? and who will see my hope. 

When my hope goes down to sheol (the grave) and we 

descend together to the dust. 

Job here plays with the word hope, which he had used in 14:7. 
There is hope for a tree that it will have a second growth. Is Job's 
only hope extinction in the grave? No longer does Job seek for death 
and extinction. Now he reaches for every glimmer of hope beyond the 
darkness of the tomb. 

Job's sixth speech is shorter than usual, but this one is a climax. 
Again he chides his "friends" with being his worst enemies. They should 


pity him when the hand of God is heavy upon him (19:21). And so he 
looks beyond the present. His friends have turned against him, but he 
would have his words engraved upon enduring rock. For his vindicator 
will arise at last. 

These verses, 19:25-27, are both very important and very dif- 
ficult. They are taken in Handel's Messiah as a great prediction of 
Christ. In the NEB translation, they say nothing of resurrection. Pope 
( Job, in loc. ) and many modern commentators find no hope of resurrec- 
tion here, feeling that to do so would contradict 14:12. But as shown 
above, 14:12 is in a context where Job poses the question of resurrec- 
tion and answers it with the affirmation of faith. 

Verse 25 begins, "For I know that my vindicator lives. " The 
word is go 'el and refers to the next of kin who avenges a murder or 
relieves the oppression of the destitute. Job obviously is not referring 
to a mere man. God was Israel's go'el who redeemed from Egypt (Exod 
6:6) from exile (Isa. 43:1) and from death (Hos. 13:14 quoted in I Cor. 
15:55). In view of the fact that the vision of God is Job's desire (19:26), 
it seems proper to take the redeemer to be God himself- -but probably 
not the messianic redeemer. Pope on the other hand declares that the 
redeemer whom Job hopes for is the umpire of 9:33 who will force God 
to come to terms. He compares Mesopotamian subdeities who thus in- 
terceded for men. But of all this, the verse says nothing. That Job 
actually hoped for help outside of God is against the whole tenor of this 
passage, regardless of his earlier outburst. 

"And that he will stand at last upon the dust. " "Upon the dust" 
may mean the earth, or it may mean the dust of Job's tomb (cf. 17:16). 
"Stand" or "rise" may be a legal term. The vindicator will appear on 
Job's behalf. But it is not to save Job from death- -the "at last" argues 
otherwise. The vindicator will redeem Job in some future day of his 

"And though after my skin worms destroy this body, " note the 
italicized words of the AV. It is a difficult line. The preposition "after" 
refers to time or place, and neither in Hebrew or English is the word 
"after" appropriate for the noun "skin"! The context wants the infinitive 
construct of a verb. Pope takes the preposition with the verb "destroy" 
and translates it "after my skin is flayed. ' But then with the final pro- 
noun "this" would be out of place and the verb following the pronoun 
should agree with it, but it does not. The NEB ad libs here with a 
footnote that the Hebrew is unintelligible. It is possible, however, to 
read the word "my skin" (root c wr ) as a verb in the infinitive construct. 
The same verb was used to mean "awake" in a resurrection context in 
14:12 (see above). The reading would then be "after my awaking. " The 


verb "destroy" is difficult. It is only used three times, though it is 
used in a second meaning "to encircle. " It may be translated, "After 
my awakening when this (sickness or body) is destroyed. " 

"Yet in my flesh I shall see God." Pope, and others, translate 
"without my flesh, I shall see God." This translation is interesting, 
for it would make the passage refer not to resurrection, but to spiritual 
life in heaven- -an equally happy thought for Job. The preposition min 
can indeed mean "apart from" as well as "from the standpoint of, " and 
many examples of the latter use are given in the lexicon. E.g., the 
Lord roars min Zion (Amos 1:2). In view of the next line, it seems 
hard to adopt Pope's idea. The whole thrust is that Job will see God 
in his resurrected body. Tur-Sinai ( The Book of Job , in loc . ) takes it 
to mean from the standpoint of his body --but before death. 

Whom I shall see for myself 

and my eyes shall see and not a stranger. 

(NEB, "I myself and no other. ") This verse put the capstone on Job's 
declaration of faith. Job at long last, after his body is consumed will 
see God in a resurrection day. The following words are probably cor- 
rectly placed with the later verses as the NEB and with them we are 
not now concerned. 

How does this doctrine of the resurrection bear on the date of 
Job? Does this imply a late date because it would involve a borrowing 
of Persian ideas? Here much depends on one's background and view- 
point. If one is convinced that the doctrine of resurrection is late, then 
Job will be given a post-exilic date, along with Psalm 49, 73, 16, Isaiah 
26, Hosea 13:14 and other passages. It would seem better to face the 
claims of revelation given in the Bible, rather than thus to restructure 
the O.T. on subjective grounds. Surely the argument in Job does not 
look like an item borrowed from an alien creed. The teaching of the 
resurrection in Job is hammered out by facing in a unique way the prob- 
lems of life against the background of the revealed character of both God 
and man. Job seems rather to have the marks of an early and original 
treatment of this wonderful doctrine. It is easier to think that the Psalm- 
ists and prophets stood on the shoulders of Job in their resurrection 

And after all, what do we know of the Persian religion in the early 
days? We have some monuments of Persian grandeur and some reports 
of their kingdom and wars. But we have no early copies of the religious 
books of the Persians. We know not when or by whom these books were 
written. They were copied and recopied in lands where Christian influ- 
ence was very strong in the first centuries of our era. 'What interpolations 


may have occurred and what influences may have been absorbed, who 
knows? Eventually these books were taken to India and brought to 
the modern world. But it is quite uncertain that Job could have been 
actually influenced in this, its basic doctrine, by such alleged teaching. 

There is, further, a dark side to Job's insights on the future 
life. For Job had two problems to face. First, why do the righteous 
suffer, but secondly, why do the wicked prosper. For the wicked do 
prosper. Honesty is not always the policy that succeeds, and sometimes 
crime does pay. Job now attacks his comforters with the declaration 
that they are wrong also on the second count. "The wicked live, become 
old, yea are mighty in power" (21:7-16). The translation of the rest of 
the passage is in debate. The AV seems to make Job say that although 
the wicked seem to die happy, yet later (vss. 17-22) they shall drink of 
God's wrath. Then again (vss. 23-34) he says wicked and righteous 
die alike. The NEB and the NASB by the use of judicious quotation marks 
and question marks make Job consistently say that the wicked do not get 
the judgment the three comforters assign to them. The question is one 
of detail, but I rather favor the AV at this point. It is true that the 
wicked go to Sheol in peace (21:13). All lie down alike in the dust and 
worms cover them (21:26). But what then? Verse 30 is the key verse. 
It has two "1" prepositions, which can mean "to" or as we now know 
from Ugaritic "from. " The AV takes the meaning "to" and says the 
wicked is spared from disaster. This is also the meaning of the NASB, 
though the "1" is translated "to. " But the conclusion cf the chapter in the 
AV seems to say that despite appearances, God will judge the wicked- - 
and this thought is later developed. 

Then Eliphaz viciously attacks Job again and accuses him of many 
sins. Job responds to this that God knows he is innocent and when God 
has tested him, "I shall come forth as gold" (23:10). Very different, 
however, is the case with the wicked. He outlines the extreme wicked- 
ness of some men and now he veers to the thought that indeed they will 
receive their judgment. (Sheol and the worm will consume them (24:19-20). 
Their exaltation is short (25:24). Tur-Sinai ( The Book of Job , in loc .) 
escapes this conclusion by saying Job is quoting from the three friends. 
Pope ( Job, in loc .) also cannot follow the argument here. He believes 
that Job has contradicted his previous statement and that this speech 
should be attributed to Zophar. Pope is correct in recognizing a shift 
in the argument, but it seems quite possible to hold that Job himself is 
looking further. Especially so because after Bildad's short and final 
speech, Job returns to this argument in 27:13-23. Here he is a bit more 
explicit. The wicked man will not merely die, perhaps easily, He will 
be given a reward from the Almighty. His children shall suffer, his 
widows shall not mourn him, he suffers the terrors of God. Tur-Sinai 
opcit . ) escapes this conclusion by saying Job "used to say" this. 


Pope, of course, ascribes this also to Zophar, but it seems that Job 
himself may here be expressing in incipient form the even harder doc- 
trine that the wicked, who seem to get by, will actually receive in the 
end the judgment of God. It cannot be said that Job expresses with any 
clarity the doctrine of future punishment for the wicked. But it is in- 
volved in his view and some of his statements look in that direction. 

As for Job himself, he brings his argument to a grand conclusion. 
He summarizes his moral principles in words already referred to as 
taken up by Solomon. Wisdom may be found, but not by worldly search. 
Surely Job wanted wisdom. His friends claimed understanding. But Job 
declares that real wisdom is to worship God in reverence and holiness 
of life. The claim is distinct that Job did this and in his final speech, 
Job lifts his hand in a solemn oath of abjuration that before God he has 
lived in innocence of the great sins of which he has been so bitterly 
and unjustly accused. If he be guilty, he says at last, let thistles grow 
instead of wheat and weeds instead of barley! The words of Job are 

Elihu returns to the argument, but in a sense, he seems to par- 
rot the argument of the rest and thus to be an anti-climax. Job has 
nothing more to say. But Job has stood his trial. He has trusted God. 
He has continued in his principles of righteousness and he has seen be- 
yond the grave to the final justice of God. It remains for God himself 
to answer El ihu and the three friends and to both humble and bless his 
servant with a vision of God in His greatness. 



Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 1971. 175 pp. $1.75, paper. 

Dr. Unger 's works are well known to almost any sincere student 
of the Word. His insistence upon the absolute authority of the Word of 
God regarding this and all other issues is itself enough to make this 
work helpful to those who are confused concerning the legitimacy of 
tongues today. The outstanding contributions of the book are: (1) The 
emphasis, in agreement with I Corinthians 13, upon the temporary nature 
of the gift, and (2) the clear expression of the doctrinal confusion that 
is so characteristic of groups which teach that tongues today area modern 
day bestowal by the Spirit (especially chapter XVI). On these major 
issues Dr. Unger has much to enlighten the unenlightened. 

In the reviewer's opinion, however, the careful student of the 
Word should examine other alternative explanations before accepting all 
of Dr. Unger's interpretations regarding the nature and purpose of this 
gift as it was exercised in the Apostolic Age. With regard to the pur- 
pose of the gift, he asserts that "tongues in the early church had a 
distinct use as a sign to Jews," and as such they were "not meant for 
Gentiles. " "Tongues were a sign of that which Jews (and not Gentiles) 
needed to be divinely assured of; namely, that the legal or Mosaic Age 
had passed away forever" (pp. 113-14). The major proof-text for this 
is I Corinthians 14:20-25, but there are several problems which mitigate 
against such an interpretation, of this passage. In the first place, Paul, 
though he was addressing Gentiles (12:2) and granting that they had re- 
ceived a genuine spiritual gift, never intimates that they should use the 
gift only when Jews were present. Secondly, in order to hold this view 
one must assume that "them that believe not" is a reference to Jews with 
weak faith, or at least includes them, because tongues never were used 
to convert Jews (or anyone else). The difficulty with this is that these 
"unbelievers ".are those who could be led to salvation by the use of the 
gift of prophecy (14:24-25). Thirdly, the major problem with this view 
is that though Isaiah (v. 21) was addressing Jewish people, by "this 
people" he means "this unbelieving people, " "hot "this Jewish people." 
That is why Paul next states, "Wherefore (based upon this illustration 
from Isaiah), tongues are for a sign ... to them that believe not." 



He does not say, "Wherefore, tongues are for a sign to Jews. " If one 
should use Paul's quotation from Isaiah to insist that it requires that 
tongues were to serve as a sign only to Jews, then it should also be con- 
cluded that they should be spoken only by pagan Gentiles (Assyrians, in 
the case of Isaiah's prophecy). 

It is true that tongues were to serve as a sign but the significance 
was by no means limited to Jews. Our Lord predicted them as signs to 
accompany the ministry of the apostles as they fulfilled the Great Com- 
mission (Mk. 16:15-18). Actually, all the signs performed after Pent- 
ecost were for the purpose of authenticating the apostles as those with the 
divinely approved message for this age. All of the unusual manifesta- 
tions of the Spirit's presence were for the purpose of authenticating the 
apostles and no signs ever occurred except by the hands of the apostles 
and those to whom the apostles had personally ministered (see 2 Cor. 

Regarding the nature of Biblical tongues, Dr. Unger repeatedly 
views them as "miraculous. " (Actually, only at Pentecost, a unique 
occasion, is there any warrant for viewing tongues as miraculous --and 
even on that occasion such an interpretation is not absolutely essential.) 
It is true that any work of the Spirit is in a sense "supernatural. " The 
gifts df teaching, evangelism, pastoring, helping, etc. may be so consid- 
ered, but they should not be thought of as miraculous. If tongues always 
involved a divine miracle (as they would, for example, if they consisted 
only of a discourse in a foreign language, as is often popularly con- 
ceived), then anytime one spoke in tongues the Holy Spirit was performing 
a miracle. But such was clearly not the case because the Holy Spirit 
would not perform a miracle at the wrong time and wrong place- -yet 
Paul clearly shows that the Corinthians were speaking in tongues at the 
wrong time and the wrong place. 

It is best to understand that the Holy Spirit had caused the Cor- 
inthians to speak in tongues originally as an attestation to Paul's Apos- 
tolic authority and message, but then the Corinthians on their own re- 
peated the experience on succeeding occasions at will- -not as caused by 
the Spirit. 

Since tongues are a psychological phenomenon they may be experi- 
enced by anyone, regardless of his spiritual condition. That is why ap- 
parently spiritual Christians as well as weak Christians, people from all re- 
ligions and even non-religious people have, can, and do speak in tongues. 

Another major problem that presents itself repeatedly in the early 
chapters of the book is Dr. Unger's repeated distinction between "New 
Testament salvation" (p. 55) and regneration (p. 71). It is agreed 


that saints in this age, since Pentecost, experience the additional bless- 
ing of the "baptism with the Spirit," that is, they are placed into the 
"body of Christ, " the church. This is a new blessing, not experienced 
before Pentecost. But Dr. Unger intimates that the Apostles at Pente- 
cost, the Samaritans upon the arrival of the disciples, Cornelius and 
his associates after Peter's arrival, and the Ephesian disciples of John 
following Paul's arrival, though they all were "regenerated" previously , 
experienced "New Testament" salvation upon these occasions. "What 
happened to them spiritually was, therefore, not something in addition 
to their salvation, but salvation itself: he says (p. 71). "Although they 
were doubtless regenerated as Old Testament saints were . . . they 
were not saved with New Testament salvation provided by Christ's death" 
(pp. 65-66). While Dr. Unger's understanding of the facts is not here 
questioned, this is certainly an unfortunate choice of terminology which 
permeates the early chapters of his book. Regeneration is salvation 
and where there is one there is the other. 

It is probably best to understand that on the Day of Pentecost, 
all regenerated saints then living were baptized into the mystical body 
of Christ and each person saved since that time has at the moment of 
regeneration (salvation) been so baptized. The later experiences at 
Caesarea, Samaria, and Ephesus do not indicate that those saints were 
not Baptized into the body of Christ when they were saved, rather the 
unusual manifestations of the Spirit's presence (including tongues) were 
for the purpose of attesting to the authority of the Apostles as the ap- 
pointed revealers of New Testament truth. In each case they did not 
occur until an apostle arrived on the scene. 

Dr. Unger's all too brief but very pertinent assertion that "that 
which is perfect" (I Cor. 13:10) cannot be the Lord's return because His 
return will not set aside the gifts of prophecy and knowledge (Joel 2:28) 
is worth the price of the book for a Christian confused regarding the 
question of tongues for today (pp. 100-01). With an emphasis upon this 
Biblical fact and with a re -evaluation (as above) of the purpose and nature 
of tongues during the Apostolic Age, this book can be a helpful tool for 
the Christian who desires to understand this issue. 

Charles R. Smith 
Grace Theological Seminary 

I WILL BUILV MY CHURCH. By Alfred Kuen. Moody Press, Chicago, 

1971. 366 pp. $6.95. 

The title of the book is taken from the phrase, "I will build my 
church," in Matthew 16:18. This church is constituted of all believers 
since the day of Pentecost (p. 51), on which day the church originated 



(pp. 51, 113, 121). This unit is the universal church or body of Christ 
into which all believers since Pentecost are inducted by the Baptism of 
the Holy Spirit (pp. 41, 76-78). Another aspect of the ekklesia is the 
local church which is given preeminence by the author (p. 51). Utilizing 
the local ekklesia concept Kuen contrasts the free churches with the 
multitudinist churches. The contrasts below will define what the author 
means by these two types of churches. He is a strong advocate of the 
free church type which began with the apostles. The multitudinist 
churches began largely with the Constantianian era (p. 258). 

Free Churches 

Multitudinist Churches 

New Birth prerequisite for 
entrance (pp. 59, 130) 

Physical birth sufficient (pp.59, 

Regenerated membership 2. 

(p. 130) 

Unregenerated allowed 

Immersion of believers (pp. 3. 
162, 166). Second prerequisite. 

Infant baptism (pp. 166, 168) 

4. Voluntary membership (p. 255) 4. 

5. Communion only for believers 5. 
(p. 257) 

Confirmatory membership^ 
Nonbelievers participate 

Universal priesthood of 6. 

believers (p. 264) 

Exaltation of clergy and sacer- 
dotal system 

7. Discipline of members (p. 269) 7. 

Discipline pratically non- 

». Separation of church and 
state (p. 273) 

i. Separation of church and 
state rarely practiced 

9. Smaller type churches (p. 326) 9. Larger type churches 

10. Emphasis upon the Bible 10. Emphasis upon ecumenicity 

(p. 319) 

The book is recommended simply for these and other contrasts 
that may be gleaned from the book. 

The following are some points over which some may want to 
quibble with the author. (1) He allocates such Synoptic parables as the 
Matthew 13 parables (pp. 85-90) and the parable of the ten virgins (Matt. 


25) to the church. (2) The disciples were not truly regenerated until 
the Holy Spirit came upon them at Pentecost (p. 121). (3) Baptism of 
the Holy Spirit is made almost synonymous with regeneration (pp. 73-74, 
121). (4) He does not offer valid proof that Peter was the first one to 
be placed upon the Rock which is Christ (pp. 112, 122). Compare I Co- 
rinthians 12:28. (5) The multitudinist church has seen its day (pp. 274- 
75). Compare Revelation 17. (6) He seems to infer that the church will 
go through the tribulation (p. 276). Accepting the wheat in Matthew 13 
as the church (p. 86) would make this certain. 

The above questionable areas are rather insignificant in compari- 
son to the positive worth of the book. The author's doctrinal stability 
in such matters as the nature of the church, its Pentecostal origin, and 
its perpetuity (p. 276) is highly commendable. Also, the church history 
aspect is valuable especially for those who have done some reading in 
this area. The book is well balanced between the doctrine of the church 
and the history of the church. In this day of ecumenicity the people of 
the Lord should be able to identify a Biblical church. This book makes 
a very definite contribution in that direction. 

Hoyle E. Bowman 
Piedmont Bible College 

By Clark H. Pinnock, Moody Press, 1971), Chicago, 256 pp. 

This is a remarkably vigorous and brilliant defense of the absolute 
inerrancy of God's written revelation by the Professor of Systematic 
Theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. The book is practically 
a compendium of current authors and ideas on this vitually important 
subject, with special attention being focused on the inroads of Neo- 
Orthodoxy. His thirteen points on the nature of Biblical inspiration (pp. 
66-104) and his discussion of problems related to the scientific and 
historical facts of Scripture (pp. 175-207) are quite helpful. 

Dr. Pinnock is bold to expose the insidious view that the "non- 
revelational" portions of the Bible are uninspired (currently popularized 
by Dr. Daniel Fuller, dean of Fuller Theological Seminary). See pages 
79-80. At the same time, however, Pinnock suggests that we should 
manifest "mutual trust and openness" to such men (pp. 81,175). Simi- 
larly, we are told that Karl Barth accepted errors in the Bible (pp. 159 , 
166). Nevertheless, "he deserves great credit for defending the sole 
authority of the Scripture as witness in and to the church (p. 96)! In 
fact, "we may be grateful that modern theology allows some place for 
supernatural revelation" (p. 54). From one who has dedicated his book 
"to that remnant of faithful men who long for a new reformation" this 


sounds like an uncertain trumpet. Would the Apostle Paul or Martin 
Luther have spoken in such conciliatory tones concerning heretical teach- 
ings in their day? 

In the Bible and science area, Dr. Pinnock is critical of the con- 
cessions made by Bernard Ramm (p. 192), and maintains that "the danger 
today is that theologians will abandon the facticity of creation altogether, 
in order to placate the dogmas of the 'church-scientific' to which the 
realm of nature is thought exclusively to belong" (p. 203). But Pinnock 
leaves us in some uncertainty with regard to the literality of the ser- 
pent in Genesis 3 (p. 76): and he follows Klaas Runia (pp. 72-73) in 
raising question marks over such statements as "water under the earth" 
(Ex. 20:4), whereas Moses clearly refers here to the oceans (cf. Deut . 

"It is our duty to be faithful to truth and intolerant of error " 
(p. 113). But where should we draw the lines in this matter? Dr. 
Pinnock feels, for example, that the pre-tribulation rapture of the church 
and believers 's baptism should not be tests of fellowship and cooperation 
(p. 136), so presumably these are not "truths" to which we should be 
"faithful. " The arbitrary nature of such a judgment should be self- 
evident. Is not the Christian bound to perpetuate all truths he believes 
to be taught in Scripture? 

Perhaps the weakest part of the book is the defense of Christian 
rationalism ("revelation empiricism") as opposed to the faith ("fideist") 
approach to God's truth (pp. 37-52). Pinnock asserts that it is not the 
testimony of the Holy Spirit and the statements of God's Word that bring 
assurance to men, but rather the culmination of historical evidences 
that Christianity is probably true (p. 46)! "To require a prior commit- 
ment to the Gospel before the evidence for its truthfulness has been 
weighed is an apologetic that can never succeed" (p. 45). But how 
long must we wait for dying men to weigh all the evidences before they 
surrender to Christ? On this basis the most foolish man at Mars Hill 
was Dionysius the Areopagite who believed on Christ without carefully 
investigating the Christian truth-claim first! 

The New Testament clearly and repeatedly explains to us that 
"faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God" (Rom. 10:17). 
When the Apostle John told men to "test the spirits to see whether they 
are from God" (I John 4:1), he was not appealing to unbelievers (p. 37 ) 
but rather to Christians ("beloved") who had already accepted the author- 
ity of Scripture by faith and were now to use those very Scriptures as 
the measuring stick for all claims to divine revelation . 

In conclusion, Dr. Pinnock's book contains many excellent statements 
concerning Biblical revelation, expecially as contrasted to Neo-Orthodox 


and existential views. It may be hoped that in future editions the weak- 
nesses listed above will be corrected. 

John C. Whitcomb, Jr. 
Grace Theological Seminary 

MEW TESTAMENT WOW STUDIES. By John Albert Bengel. Kregel 

Publications, Grand Rapids, 1971. 2 vols., 1,905 pp. $29.95. 

It is not often that a publisher finds it commercially feasible 
to produce a Biblical commentary when its author died more than two 
hundred years ago. That Kregel Publications has included J. A. Bengel's 
monumental work (originally called Gnomon of the New Testament ) in its 
Reprint Library testifies to the abiding worth of this eighteenth century 

Johann Albrecht Bengel was born in Germany in 1687 and died in 
1751. A scholar and churchman all his life, he had a firm faith in the 
full inspiration and authority of the Scripture. He devoted his energies 
to a study of the various NT manuscripts, editions, and versions, and 
in 1734 he produced a NT text with an Apparatus Criticus, and this be- 
came the starting point of modern textual criticism. He formulated the 
well known principle for choosing among textual variants: "The more 
difficult reading is to be preferred. " Bengel was the first to attempt a 
classification of NT manuscripts, dividing them into two classes: Asiatic 
and African. The latter included the few but most ancient authorities, 
and to these Bengel gave preference. 

The present edition of New Testament Word Studies is a reprint 
of the English translation by Charlton T. Lewis and Marvin R. Vincent 
(1864). Additions to Bengel's work have been made by the translators, 
and these are indicated in brackets. The treatment of the text is verse - 
by-verse, with comments upon significant matters of textual and exegeti- 
cal interest. Although the work obviously does not incorporate the re- 
cent light on word usage from papyrus finds, it does provide helpful 
word studies to a limited degree. One does not always agree with 
Bengel's interpretations (but that is true of most any commentator). 
Nevertheless, the author's devout handling of the text, his sensitivity 
to its spiritual meaning, and his careful exegesis commend his work to 
serious students. 

Homer A. Kent, Jr. 
Grace Theological Seminary 


Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 124 pp. $.95 (paper). 

This latest addition to Moody's Everyman's Bible Commentary 
series provides a brief but excellent treatment of Paul's Epistle to the 


Colossians. The author is the well-known professor of New Testament at 
Fuller Theological Seminary, who has served as the NT editor of the 
Wycliffe Bible Commentary , reviser of Alford's Greek Testament , and 
author of numerous works including Introduction to the New Testament . 
He also authored John: The Gospel of Faith in the Everyman's series. 

A helpful introduction is provided, along with a very readable 
exposition of the text. Improtant words are discussed, optional views 
are briefly sketched, and refreshing insights are given. There is a 
brief but good treatment of stoicheia on page 57 (Harrison doubts that it 
means "elemental spirits"), a fine discussion of household obligations 
(pp. 96 ff. ), an interesting explanation of "Justus" (p. 113), and some 
comment on the house-church phenomenon (pp. 117-118). 

For a brief study of Colossians suitable for a broad segment of 
Christian readers, it is difficult to imagine a better book than this one. 

Homer A. Kent, Jr. 
Grace Theological Seminary 


By William M. Ramsay. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1965, 478 pp. 


This book is renowned for its strong argument for the South Gala- 
tian destination of the epistle. It sets the stage for its commentary with 
an extensive presentation of the merits of the South Galatian destination 
(notice Part I). The second part presents the commentary itself. In 
this section he reinforces his previous conclusions with his interpretation 
of the book. 

As one reads this book he will note some areas of weakness. 
The first criticism is the omission of a good map, especially useful in 
the historical section. The maps included are less than satisfactory. 
Along with this weakness is the lack of any index of the various geo - 
graphical places mentioned. Even as one attempts to use the maps pro- 
vided, this is rendered hopeless with no assistance in locating places 
of significance as mentioned in the discussion. 

Another weakness involves the author's ability to communicate his 
place in the passage under discussion. The reader is sometimes at a 
loss as to where the author is in the epistle. This is not a recurring 
problem, but it is significant to a proper evaluation. Also noticed in 
the commentary section is the author's unclear presentation of the re- 
lation of Paul's travels in Acts to Galatians (pp. 405 ff. ). 

A third area of weakness is the frequent allusion, within the com- 
mentary section, to the strength of the South Galatian theory to best 


interpret the passage (example: pp. 308-309 footnote). Sometimes the 
relevancy of such an allusion is strongly doubted. 

The author at times displays grave criticism of Paul's arguments 
at various places in the narrative (pp. 376 with 379; 380-381: 431). It 
must be admitted that Paul was in a better place to know the type of 
argument needed than an historian in the 19th century, regardless of how 
knowledgeable the historian might be. 

A further criticism is the presentation on pages 420-421. The 
reviewer wonders where the fourth statement is to be found; the first 
three are easily seen, but the fourth has fallen by the wayside. 

A final area of notice before considering some positive areas 
should be mentioned. The author's analysis of Paul's malady as severe 
headaches derived from malaria (pp. 422-428) may be open to some 

There are some areas of strength in this work that need to be 
mentioned to properly evaluate it. The first is the author's perspective. 
It is one of "on the field" authority (pp. 146 footnote; 197-198). He is not 
an arm-chair historian. Another area of commendation is the author's 
thorough historical presentation (234 pages) upon which he bases his 
South Galatian hypothesis. 

A third area is the author's honesty and clearly defined purpose . 
He readily admits his lack of ability in certain areas (p. 286). He also 
refuses involvement in needless argumentation not directly involved in 
his discussion (p. 280). In this regard one might notice his frequent 
use of Lightfoot. Although disagreeing with him as to destination, he 
recognizes his interpretative ability. 

A fourth area of strength is the help given certain passages by 
the author's vast historical background (note: Galatians 3:7,15,23-25; 
5:19-21). Although the particular reader may disagree with the con- 
clusions, the historical insight is very helpful. 

In conclusion this book is very helpful in setting the historical 
stage upon which to view the epistle. It should not be seen as a thor- 
ough commentary upon every verse. It reflects historical insight upon 
certain passages to the exclusion of others. If one is desirous of an 
extended historical presentation of the destination problem this work will 
prove very helpful and useful. 

Bruce A. Pickell 
Winona Lake, Indiana 


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Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 1,242 pp. $8.95. 

REFUGE IN THE SECRET PLACE. Regal Division, Gospel Light Pub- 
lications, Glendale, Calif., 1971. 175 pp. $1.25. 

THE PRACTICE OF PRAYER. G. Campbell Morgan. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 128 pp. $1.95. 
JUSTIFICATION. Markus Barth. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 

Grand Rapids, 1971. 90 pp. $1.95. 
GOD AND HIS WORLD. Paraphrase by Kenneth N. Taylor, Compiled 

by John Calvin Reid. Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, Calif. 

1971. 502 pp. $8.95. 

PROFITABLE BIBLE STUDY. (Second Revised Ed. ) Wilbur M. Smith. 

Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 166 pp. $1.65. 
A PULPIT MANUAL. Donald E. Demaray. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, 1959. 64 pp. $1.50. 
12 STRIKING SERMONS. Charles H. Spurgeon. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1971, reprinted. 152 pp. $1.95. 

Spurgeon. Baker Book House, Reprinted 1971. 152 pp. $1.95. 
GIVE UP YOUR SMALL AMBITIONS. Michael C. Griffiths. Moody 

Press, Chicago, 1971. 160 pp. $1.95. 
CITY PSALMS. Marie Chapian. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 48 pp. 

THE BLACK CHURCH IN THE U.S. William L. Banks. Moody Press, 

Chicago, 1972. 160 pp. $2.25. 

Press, Chicago, (1963, Moody Press Edition, 1972). 221 pp. 

SAYINGS (MAO & JESUS). Dick Hillis, ed. Regal Div. , Gospel Light 

Publications, Glendale, Calif., 1972. 127 pp. $1.25. 
WAYS TO HELP THEM LEARN. H. Norman Wright. Regal Div. , Gospel 

Light Publications, Glendale, Calif., 1972. 150 pp. $1.95. 

Haystead. Regal Division, Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, 

Calif., 1972. 127 pp. $1.95. 

Ruler, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , Grand Rapids, Mich. , 

1972. 104 pp. $2.45. 

THE BIBLE STORY PICTURE BOOK. Eleanor L. Doan, Ed. Regal Divi- 
sion, Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, Calif., 1971. 195 pp.